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CAMOW CWNTAF YN GWMBRAIC: First Steps in Cumbrac
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 27, 2008 11:52 pm    Post subject: CAMOW CWNTAF YN GWMBRAIC: First Steps in Cumbrac Reply with quote

I post this out of possible interest. Is this another attempt at Devonian?

CAMOW CWNTAF YN GWMBRAIC: First Steps in Cumbrac

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( No rights are reserved. Any part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, and transmitted, in any form, and by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, and otherwise, without prior
permission of the publisher.)
Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations
Cumbric Place-Names
An English-Cumbric Dictionary
A Cumbric-English Dictionary
A Cumbric Grammar

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Pa beth Cwmbraíc?

Cwmbraíc yw'r eno'r yath P-Celtic o'r yin planth val Welsh, Cornish, ac
Breton. Cwmbraíc leidasa achraís yr Alban, Cleth y Laígre, ac y cleth
parthow Canol y Laígre.

Literal Translation

What thing Cumbric? Cumbric is the name (of) the tongue P-Centic of the one
family like/as Welsh, Cornish, and Breton. Cumbric used to be spoken
over-cross the Albany, North the Logres, and the north parts (of) the Middle
(of) the Logres.

What is Cumbric

Cumbric is the ancient P-Celtic language of Scotland, Northern England, and
parts of the North Midlands. The British P-Celtic languages, which consist
of Breton, Cornish, Cumbric, and Welsh, are descended from Prythonic, the
language of the Ancient Britons. Cumbric is regarded in Scotland as
something of a curiosity, useful for diciphering place-names and family
names, but useful for little else, but Cumbric in England is an Ethnic
Awareness and Justice concern in that since the beginning of the twentieth
century concerted efforts have been made to steal the folk consciousness of
the Northern English by denying their Celtic and Scandinavian roots, and by
substituting ersatz Saxon roots instead. Ethnic Awareness and Justice in
England is concerned to secure the right of every non-Saxon English persons
to be regarded as being English irrespective of race or religion, such as
for example not only Celtic English, but also English Black and other. The
obvious model for Cumbraic is Nance's highly successful reconstruction of
Cornish, which Nance called Kernewek. Nance famously replied to his critics
that Kernewek may or may not have been exactly the same as original Cornish,
but it was a form of Cornish, and as such Kernewek has gone from strength to
strength. Malcontents have reconstructed another veriety of Cornish called
Cornoak. This of course has not lessened Nance's eminence as a Celtic
scholar, but is has put Kernewek to the question with regards to its
authenticity. In order to avoid a similar embarassment with regard to
Cumbraic I have renounced all copyright in order that other Celtic scholars
might make their own individual contributions. The most glaring difference
between Kernewek and Cwmbraic in their respective reconstructions is the
fact that Cornish medieval mystery plays were available to Nance whereas
Cumbric left no such trances. Despite this there is a wealth of written
infomation in the form of Cumbric place-names together dialect words and
Cumbric words that have entered Standard English. Victorian scholars of
Cumbric revealed veritable mines of Cumbric vocabulary. Mr. Whittaker in
Volume Two, pages 233 to 329, in his History of Manchester, has provided a
list of three thousand North Country Cumbric words that have entered the
vocabulary of Standard English. Furthermore Mr.Davies supplied in a paper
that he contributed to The transactions of the Philological Society in 1885
another long list of North Country Cumbric words that have passed into
Standard English. Mr. Davies commented that many low, burlesque, and obscene
words in the Lancashire dialect can be traced back to Cumbric. Furthermore,
Mr. Garnet in Volume One, page 171, of the Transaction of the Philological
Society, also supplied a similar list of Cumbric words. Elements of grammar
also exist in some of the Cumbric place-names that indicate that Cumbric
grammar was not all that different from medieval Welsh grammar. In addition
translations of the Cumbric verses of Aneirin and Taliesin into Welsh
present further proof of the close parallel between Welsh and Cumbric
grammar. Cumbric can therefore continue where it left off, especially since
the grammar of Breton possesses elements that are identicle to medieval
Welsh. Differences in grammar can be found in Cumbric, especially in the use
of the definite article, but the one difference above all others that
establishes Cumbric as an idependent language seperated from Welsh is the
retention of the vowel-W before nasal plus stop, which is also a feature of
Breton. Study of surviving Cumbric place-names present the unique ability of
Cumbric to adopt non-Celtic words. This allows Cumbraic to adopt the
international words of science and technology instead of creating Celtic
neologisms such as the Welsh teledu for television. Nance expanded the
limited vocabulary of Cornish words that were available to him by converting
Welsh words into Cornish, so there is no reason why Welsh words cannot also
be converted into Cumbric. Even the vocabulary of Breton has been expanded
by borrowings from Welsh. The edition of the Times newspaper of the 3rd.
January 1991 carried a report that first appeared in Le Mond, according to
which Lukiann Kergoat, the head of Breton and Celtic Studies at the
University of Rennes, and chairperson of a committee called Kreizhenn ar
Geriauin, intended to create twenty thousand new Breton word in order to
bring Breton up to date by respelling Welsh words. Evidence of the late
survival of Cumbric as a spoken language exists in the place-name Cumwhinton
meaning Quinton's Valley that contains the French personal name Quinton. In
addition the survival of Cumbric field-names and the presence of three
Cumbric words in a medieval Further support for the persistence of Cumbric,
even as far south as Lincolnshire, is found in Shepherd's Enumeration, which
in fact was mainly used by knitters. Perhaps the most interesting thing to
have arisen during Cumbric's reconstruction is the discovery that Cumbric is
the missing link between Welsh and Cornish. A Welsh speaker might consider
Cumbric to be archaic, but if Cumbric may appear to a Welsh speaker to be
medieval in a modern setting, for example to say I enter the house in
Cumbric you would use Biblical Welsh and say mi a mwnd yn y tec rather than
the more contemplorary Welsh wyf i'n mynd yn y teg. This may indeed sound
medieval to a Welsh speaker but not to a speaker of Cornish or Breton. There
is a further twist. Certain diphthongs such as AI can be pronounced either
as short-E or short-A, for example Nothern English Penyghent is matched by
Scottish Pennigant, both morphemes ghent and gant being derived from the
morpheme gaínt in the original pen y gaínt. A study of Cumbric also reveals
a semantic links between Welsh and Cornish, for example the Welsh wordchwyl
corresponds in form but not in meaning to the Cornish word whyl, the
semantic link being the Cumbric word chwyl as in the Northcountry Brigantian
word wheel meaning a pothole beneath a fors or waterfall, and the Yorkshire
place-name Wheldrake meaning Dragons Cave. The Welsh word chwyl means a turn
or turning and the Cornish word whel means a mine. Cumbric provides the
semantic link between Welsh chwyl and Cornish whel in that the Cumbric word
chwyl refers to a pothole beneath a fors, the churning stones being clearly
visible as the cause of the wheel. Furthermore the place-name Wheldrake
reveals that Cumbric chwyl came to mean any pothole, or even a cave, which
semantically is only a short step to the meaning of Cornish word whel.
Incidentally the spelling of the morpheme whel in Wheldrake is identicle to
Cornish spelling. Late Cumbric underwent a series of sound changes that
distinguished it from Welsh, for instance the place-name Leswalt, which when
recorded was pronounced as leeswalt, arose from the two ancient Cumbric
words llis and gwellt meaning lliswellt or a grassy court. Llis and gwellt
is of course the same as modern Welsh llys and gwellt (i.e. Lyswellt), but
the sound change of short-E before labials to short-A turned Lliswellt into
Lliswallt, which in Welsh means not grassy court but hairy court
(i.e.Llyswallt). Because late Cumbric was a spoken language rather than a
written language no attempt was made to create Celtic neologisms when
encountering non-Celtic languages, for example Blennerhasset in Cumberland
is derived from the two Celtic words blaín and yr meaning hill+the, and from
the two Scandinavian words haí+sætr meaning hay+meadow, so we get
hill+the+hay+meadow, which with a little knowledge of Welsh grammar tells us
that the name in plain English means crest of the hay meadow. This ability
of Cumbric to adopt loan words from other languages has three consequences
when increasing the vocabulary of Cumbraíc, or reconstructed Cumbric.

1.. Scandinavian words that exist in English and Welsh may be adopted.

2.. Gaelic words that exist in English and Scots may be adopted.

3.. The international words of science and technology may be adopted
instead of attempting to find Celtic equivalents.
To conclude, the reconstruction of a Cumbric vocabulary, though challenging,
presents no serious problem, but although Cumbric changed considerably over
the centuries it preserved archaisms such as the retention of short-u and
short-o before nasals plus stop, for example the first morpheme of
Cumberland is short-u and not short-E. Cumbric grammar is identicle to
Medieval Welsh grammar, for example Cumbric place-names, such as Larbet and
Eccle Fechan, have even preserved elements of Cumbric grammar. It should
also be pointed out the many Romano-British laws, taxes, policing, and modes
of administration are recorded in the Doomsday Book as having survived in
Brigantia were identicle to laws, taxes, policing, and modes of
administration current in Wales until Henry VII imposed English laws and
administrative procedures upon Wales. Early Cumbric was no doubt early Welsh
of a kind but sound changes and differences in vocabulary later arose that
would seperate Welsh and Cumbric into two seperate languages.
Scottish not "British"

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PostPosted: Fri Jun 27, 2008 11:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote


Bret. Breton Chs. Cheshire c. circa cf. confer Corn. Cornish (Kernewek) Cu.
Cumberland Db. Derbyshire Dur. Durham Lancs. Lancashire Lei. Leicestershire
M.W. Medieval Welsh Nrth. Northumberland Notts, Notthinghamshire Cumbric
Reconstructed Cumbric Shr. Shropshire Shrews. Shrewsbury Staffs.
Staffordshire Wor. Worcestershire Wst. Westmorland W. Welsh Yorks. Yorkshire



Cumbric place-names

Aberruthven: nr. Auchterrarder, Scot., cf. W. aber rudd faen, Corn. aber
ruth ven, (red stone conflux), Cumbric *aber rudd vain.
Ashton-in-Makerfield: Lancs.., Ashton c.1225, cf. Ince-in-Makerfield; cf.W.
magwyr & Corn magor (wall or ancient ruin). Cumbric *magwy, variant *magor,
see Eaglesfield.
Aspatria: Cu., Aspatric c.1230, a Norse-Cumbric hybrid, this place-name
preserves a Cumbric genitive.

Bannock Burn: Scot. Mid Lothian, cf.W. banog bryn. Cumbric *bannawk or banoc
Barpennald: Cu., cf.W. bar pen allt & Corn. bar pen als, (top of chief
cliff). Cumbric *bar pen alth
Barroc Fell: Cu., Barroc c.1295, cf. M.W. barawg, a spur. This place-name
preserves a Cumbric adjectival suffix.
Barwick-in-Elmet: cf.W. *Barwyg-yn-Elved, bar (hilltop) and gwyg (coppice).
Bathgate: Scot., Bathchet, c.1160, Bathkethe c.1337, cf.W.baedd goed & Corn.
both gos, (boar's wood). Cumbric * baíth gaíth. NB. the lenition in the
modern name; this is indicative of the persistence of Cumbric in the area.
Birdoswald: Cu., Borddoswald c.1200, cf.W. buarth, (cow fold of dairy); cf.
Burtholm. Cumbric *burth
Birkby: Cu., Brethesco c.1203, N. Breta Skogr, (Britton's Wood.); cf.
Blawith: Cu., Blawit c.1276, cf., W. blaedd wydd & Corn. blydd with (wolf
wood). Cumbric *blaíth with Blencarn: Cu.,
Blencarne c.1159, Blenecarn c.1210, Blencarn 1211, cf. W. blaen y carn, cf.
Corn. blyn an carn, (top of the burial mound); Cumbric *blaín carn, blaín y
Blencathra: Cu., Blenkarthure c. 1589, cf. W. blaen cader, (throne summit);
Cumbric *blaín cadder. The alternative name for this fell is Saddleback.
Blencogo: Cu., Blenecogou c.1292, cf. W. blaen y cogau & Corn. blyn an
cogas, (hill of cuckoos). Cumbric *blaín y cogow. This place name preserves
a Cumbric suffix.
Blencow: Cu. Blenkhaw c.1254. A hybrid Cumbric-Norse place-name, *blaín
(haugr) meaning hill top.
Blennerhesset: Cu. Blennerhaiseta c. 1188, a hybrid Cumbric-Norse
place-name, *blaín yr haísetr, meaning crest of the hay field. This
place-name establishes that the definite article y became yr before H.
Blindcrake: Cu. Blenecrayc c.1268, cf. W. blaen y crcrake, (summit of the
rock); Cumbric *blaín y craíc.
Brant Fell: Yorks. a hybrid Cumbric-Norse place-name meaning steep
hill/mountain. The word brant, together with its variant brent, are still in
use as a dialect word meaning steep. This is an example of the survival of
Cumbric in dialect as well as in a place-name.
Bredon: Lei. Briudun c.730, meaning either the summit of a down or a fort.
Breedon: Wor. Beodun c.722, as above.
Briscow: Cu., Brethesco c.1203, see Birkby.
Burtholm: Cu., Burtholm c.1256, a hybrid Cumbric-Norse place-name meaning a
dairy or cow fold on the spur of a hill. See. Birdoswald. BRYN Lancs. a hill

Cairndinnis: Scot., near Dunplelder, cf.W. carn dinas (a mound retreat). A
dinas was a temporary fortified retreat as distinct from caer, which was a
permanent stone-built stronghold such as a castle or farm-house, also cf.
Dinas Sitch Tor, Db. behind the Snake in on Snake Pass.
Calder: Lancs., Kalder c.1200, cf. W. place-names Calettwr and Clettwr,
(hard water, i.e. fast flowing river), W. called dwr; Cumbric *caleth *dwr.
The word cal has acquired a new meaning in Welsh and Cornish, therefore it
is supposed the original was*Calthdwr.
Cambeck: Nth. Camboc c.1169, Cambec c.1622, (a meandering stream).
Camblesford: Yorks. Camelesford c.1311, cf.W. cam y lais, (bend on the
stream). Cumbric *cam y lais.
Camerton: Cu., Camerton c. 1150, cf.W. cymmer, (conflux), Cumbric *cwmmer.
Capledre: Scot. Lochere in Linlithgow, cf.W. ceffyl dre, (horse town)
Cumbric *capel dre, cappel is a dialect word meaning a horse.
Capplerigg: Cu., see Capledre above.
Caraverick: Cu., Caraverick c.1150, the name of a lost settlement in Leath
Ward of Cumberland. Caraverick c.1150, cf.W. caer efrog (farmhouse amid
cowslips), R.D. *cair *afyric. NB. the intrusive y before R and initial E
changed to A.
Carcowe: Wst. a field-name in West Ward of Westmorland. A hybrid
Cumbric-Norse field-name, *Cair Haugr. The importance of a Celtic word
appearing in a field-name is that it indicates a late survival of spoken
Cumbric in West Ward.
Cardew: Cu., Carthew c.1287, cf. W. caer ddu, (black farmhouse), Cumbric
*cair *ddu.
Cardrona: Traqur in Peebles, Scot., Cardronow c. 1500, cf.W. caer dronau,
(fort circle, i.e., of standing stones), Cumbric *cair dronow. This place
name contains the cambric plural -ow.
Cardunneth Pike: Cu., Cardunnoke c.1386, cf.W. caer Dunod, (Donatus'
farmhouse), Cumbric *cair Dunoth: see also Dintsmere, Chs., boundary of
Donatus, also see Dinting, Chs., Dintinge, c. 1226, place of Donatus,
Dinthill, Shrews., Dunthill c. 1200, hill of Dontatus, Cumbric *Dunoth.,
Cardurnock: Cu., Cardrunnoke, c. 1386, cf.W. caer *durenog (pebbly
farmhouse), c f. W. duren (pebble, steel, flint). NB. the disappearance of E
between consonant R and nasal N. Cumbric *cair durnoc.
Carfrae: Scot., Lauderdale in Berwickshire, cf.W. caer fre (hill fort). NB.
this place-name has preserved the lenition of B into V. R.V. *cair fre Cark:
Lancs. Karke c.1491, cf.W. careg (stone). NB. the disappearance of E between
the consonants R and K. Cumbric * caCumbric
Carkin: Yorks. Karrecan c. 1200, Kercan, c. 1200, cf.W. careg can (white
stone). See also Cargo, Cu. From Carec Haugr, hybrid Celtic-Norse place-name
meaning White Hill. NB. the disappearance of E after R and before C. Cumbric
*carc can.
Carnetly: Cu., Carnthelaue c.1230. (Burial Mound of Teilo.), cf., Llanteilo
in Wales. NB. that this place-name appears to preserve an aspirate mutation.
Cumbric * carn teilo.
Carwath: Scot., Lanarkshire, Karnewid c.1179, Carnewithe c.1315, Carnwith c.
1451, cf.W. carn y gwydd (durial mound of trees), cf. Corn. carn an gwyth.
Cumbric *carn y gwydd.
Carrick: Wst., cf. local dialect word currock and currick meaning a cairn or
heap of stones, cf. Carrick in Scotland. The survival of Cumbric words in
Scots and North Country dialect serves as the basis of the argument that
Cumbric never really died out.
Carrock Fell: Cu., Carroc c. 1208, cf.W. carog (fenced, walled, or
fortified).Cumbric *caroc.
Carwinley: Cu., Carwyndelawe c. 1292, Karwendelowe c.1281, Carwyndelowe
c.1300, cf. W. caer Wenddoleu (Gwenddoleu's Castle). Cumbric *cair
Castle Carrock: Cu., Castelcairoc x.1165, Castelcarroc c. 1212, cf. W.
castell caerog. Cumbric *castel cairoc.
Castel Hewin: Cu., Castelewyne c.1272, Castle Hewin c.1794, cf.W. castell
Ewain (Owen's castle). This castle is legended to have been the castle of
Eugenius Caesarius, a king of Cumbria who expelled the Angles and
re-established British rule after the Saxons had been driven out. Cumbric
*castel Ewain.
Catterlen: Cu., Caderlen c. 1165, cf. W. cader llan (hermitage throne).
Cader in this case is from the Greek word kathedra meaning a bishop's
throne. Cumberland, as well as Elmet and Cornwall, were Christian throughout
the sub-Roman era, and were not reconverted to Christianity by Irish monks.
Catterton: Yorks. Cadreton c.1230, a hybrid English and Cumbric place-name
meaning fort enclosure. NB. This place-name preserves a Saxon word just as
Blennerhasset has preserved a Norse word.
Cairndinnis: Scot., near Dunpelder, the burial mound of Dionysius.
Chadderton: Lancs. see Catterton.
Cheadle: Chs. Chedle c.1153 (wood hill). A hybrid Cumbric and English place
Cheetham: Lancs. Chetham c. 1226 (wood pasture) A hybrid Cumbric and English
place name (ham=arable land).
Clesketts: Cu. Closchet c.1245, cf.W. clas coed (glebe wood), clas is an
enclosed space, a green covering of grass, or glebe land. Cumbric *clas
Comberbach: Chs. Comburbach c.1333 (stream of the Cwmbro), cf.W. cymro,
Corn. kembro, from Prythonic cumbrogi meaning a compatriot. Cumbric *
*cwmbro boc. NB. In Cumbric W and O did not become Y before nasal plus stop
as in Welsh, Breton, and Cornish. This is a distinctive feature of Cumbric,
one of several that indicate that Cumbric was a separate language even
though similar to Welsh.
Combermere: Chs. Cumbremara c.1157, (compatriot wasteland). Cumbric *cwmbru
Comberford: Staffs, this indicates that Cumbric was once spoken in the North
Midlands, see also. Wor. Comberton, Lancs Comberhalgh. Condor: Lancs.
Condovere c.1246, cf.W. cam dwfr (crooked waters). Cumbric *cam dwfr.
Coulderton: Cu., Culdreton c.1180, cf.W. cul dir (narrow land). Cumbric *cul
dir. This is a very interesting place name because it acquired the English
word ton in the 12th.century, which would indicate that it was about this
time that Scots began to replace Cumbric in Cumberland, which was the last
refuge of spoken Cumbric.
Couwhencatte: Cu., Cumquencath c.1169. (Gwencad's valley).
Gwencad is a personal name that means White Battle. Cumbric *cwm Cwencadd.
NB. the mutation of G into C.
Culcheth: Lancs., Culchet c.1201, Kulcheth c.1246, cf. W. cul goed (narrow
wood), Cumbric *cul gaidd.
Culgaith: Cu., Culchet c.1203, Culgayth c.1232, cf. W. cul goed (narrow
wood). Culgayth and Culgaith are verifications of the Reconstructed Cumbric
*cul gaidd.
Cumcath: Cu., Cumcache c.1292, cf.W. cwm cach (dung valley), Cumbric *cwm
Cumcrook: Cu., Cumcruk c.1295, cf.W. cwm crug (valley mound), Cumbric *cwm
Cumdivock: Cu., Cumdevoc c. 1244. Devoc's Valley, Prythonic personal name
Dubacos meaning Dark or Swathy Man, cf.W. duog (dark), Cumbric *dufoc. NB.
the persistence of the intrusive F, which is absent in the Welsh version of
this adjective.
Cummersdale: Cu. Cumbredal c.1227. A hybric Cumbric and Norse place name
meaning the Valley of the Cymru, cf. also Cumberland: Cumbraland c.945, cf.
also Cumberhill in Derbyshire, Cumberworth in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire,
see also Cumberbach cf. W. Cymru, Cumbric . NB. The persistence of stop B
after nasal M, and the persistence of W before nasal plus stop.
Cumrew: Cu., Cumreu c.1200, Cumrew c.1209, cf.W. cwm rhiw, (valley slope).
Cumbric *cwm riw.
Cumwhinton: Cu., Cumquinton c.1227. Quinton's Valley. Quinton is a
Norman-French personal name. This place-name is proof that Cumbric was
spoken after William Duke of Normandy succeeded Edward the Confessor.
Crakeplace Hall: Cu., Crakeplace c.1288, cf.W. craig plas (stone manor).
Cumbric *craic plas.
Crew: Chs. Cruwe c.1190, Cruue c.1288, cf.W. cryw (a ford or stepping
stones), cf.
Crewgarth in Cumberland,cf. W. cryw garth (ford farm)..Cumbric *cryw garth
Crich: Db., Cryc c.1009, cf.W. crug (a hill). Cumbric *cruc.
Crickheath: Shr., Cruchet c.1272, cf.W. crug (a mound). Cumbric *cruc gaidd
(wood containing a burial mound).
Crofton Bridge: Cu., formerly Waspatrickwath, meaning the Ford of Patrick's
Servant. Patrick was a local saint who attained fame in Ireland, Gwaspatrick
or Sevant of Patrick was a local fore-name.
Cruckton: Shr. Crocton c.1272, Crokton c.1308, cf. W. crug (burial mound),
Cumbric *cruc.

Dacre: Cu., Dakre c.1292, cf. W. deigre (a tear drop). Dacre refers to a
nearby stream, cf. Dacre in Yorkshire. NB. that the Welsh diphthong EI,
pronounced as I, eye, and aye in English is pronounced as short A in
Cumbric. Cumbric *daicre.
Dacre Beck: Cu., Dakerbek c.1323, Cumbric *daicre boc (tear stream).
Dalkieth: Scot., Dolchet c.1144, Dalkethe c.1337, cf.W. dal coed (meadow
wood). Cumbric* dal caidd.
Dalfibble: Scot., Dumfries, cf.W. dal pebyll (spread tent), Cumbric*dal
febyl. NB. the mutation of P into F in this Cumbric place-name.
Dane: Chs. Dauuen c.1220, Daan c.1416, cf.W. dafn (a drip), cf. also
Davenport in Cheshire meaning 'Drip Paved Road'. Cumbric*dafn.
Desoglin: Cu., Dassoglen c.1596. Oglen is related to the Welsh ogl meaning
full of motion or life, in Welsh das means a heap. This place name could be
construed to mean a heap of a certain substance that is full of certain
living beings, but it probably refers to nearby marshy ground. Cumbric *das
Devoke: Duvokeswater c. 1205, Duffockiswatir c.1280, the place-name means
Dubacos' Lake, water referring to a lake or loch.
Dinthill: Shrews. Duntull c.1299, (Donatus' hill), cf. Dintsmere: Chs.
Donatus' boundary mark, also Dinting: Chs. Duntinge c.1226, (Donatus'place),
Dinwiddie: Scot. Roxburgh, Dunwedy c.1504, cf. Dunwoody in Dumfries, cf. W.
gwyddfa (woody place, a Bardic seat), and cf. Gwyddfa (Snowdon). NB.,
Dinwiddie and Dunwoody would be suitable places to hold a Scottish
Dollerline: Cu., Dallerline c.1598, cf.W. dol ar lefniad (loop on the
smoothness). Cumbric *dol ar lefni. This place name refers to an ox-bow.
Douglas: Lancs., cf.W. glais (a stream), see also Diggles in Lancashire,
both meaning black stream. Cumbric *du glais, NB. that the adjective
precedes the noun. Douglas is also the surname of a well known Lancashire
family, and is also used as a forename.
Dove Dale: Db. Duuendale c.1296, cf. River Dove in Derbyshire, Dufan c.951,
Duue c. 1228, cf. also Dove Holes in Derbyshire. Cumbric *dufyn, diminutive
of *duf meaning dark. Dover Beck: Notts. Doverbec c.1227, cf.W. dwfr
(waters). Cumbric *dwfr boc (stream of waters).
Dunreggit: Scot., Fort of Rheged, see Rochdale. Rheged was a British kingdom
that included S.E. Scotland and N.W. England. Cumbric *dwn regedd. Dreva:
Scot., Tweed. Cf.W. y dre fa (the village place). Cumbric *y dre fa. NB. the
Drumburgh: Cu., Drumboc c.1225. Old Welsh drwm bach (small ridge). Cumbric
*drwm bach.

E Eccles: Lancs. Eccles c.1200, cf. Yorks Ecclesall, Eccleshale c.1205, cf.
Ecclesfield, Ecclesfeld c.1109, Eccleshill, and Lancs. Eccleston, Ecclestine
c. 1190, Great & Little Eccleston, Ecleston c.1285, and Db Eccles Pike,
Ecclesbourne, and Staff. Eccleshall, and Drh. Egglescliffe, and Cu.
Eglesfield, Eglesfeld c.1290, and Scot. Ecclefechan, cf. W. eglwys & Corn.
Eglos, NB. the archaicism of these place-names in that the final vowel
remained unchanged. Cumbric *egles.
Eddleston: Scot. Formerly Pentiacob, Jacob's penthouse. Cumbric *pent Iacob
Eglesbreth: Scot. Mid Lothian, cf.W. eglwys braith. Cumbric egles braith
Etherow: Chs. Ederhou c.1221, Ederou c.1285, Edderowe c.1290, cf. W. edd
(glide), and haw (sluggish). Cumbric *edd yr how.
Ewanrigg: Co. Evenrigg c.1295, Ouenrig c.1332, Owain's Ridge. Cumbric *Owain

Gawswoth: Chs. Gouseworth c. 1276, cf.W. gof (a smith). Cumbric *gof
Gilcrux: Cu. Killecruce c. 1175, cf.W. cil y crug (retreat by the hillock).
Cumbric *cil y cruc.
Glasgow: Scot. Glasgu c.1136, cf.W. glas gau (green hollow). Cumbric *glas
Glencoyn: Cu.Glencaine c.1212 Glenekone c.1255, Glencon c.1291, cf.W. glyn
cawn (valley of reed). Cumbric *glyn cown Glencoyne: Wst. Glencaine c.1212,
Glenekone c.1255, Glencon c.1291, Glenkwent c.1577, Glenkwen c.1622. NB.
This and the above place-name have been influence by the imposition of the
English Gaelic word cain, meaning beautiful. The elements of English Gaelic
in place-names are too few to attempt the reconstruction of English Gaelic.
Glendermackin: Cu. Glenermakon c.1278, cf.W. glyn y magon (valley of
berries.) Cumbric *glyn y macon. Glenderterra: Cu. Glunduvar c.1247,
Glenderterray c.1729, cf.W. glyn dwfr terion (valley of pure water.) Cumbric
*glyn dwfr terion. NB. The 18thcent. place-name has preserved *terion.
Glenridding: Wst. Glenredyn c.1292, cf.O.W. glinn redin, W. glyn rhedyn.
Glensax: Scot. Peebles, and Gensaxon in Dumfries, cf.W. glyn sais (Saxon
Valley.) Cumbric *glyn saix. NB. The Cumbric archaism preserves the
C. Goyt: Chs. Recorded as both Gwith and Gote in the 14th cent., cf.W. gwyth
(a narrow channel), Corn. goth & gwith. Cumbric *gwyth & goth. NB. The Welsh
diphthong WY appears either as WI or O in Cumbric and Cornish. The
pronunciation of long O as the diphthong OI was once a feature of the local
Govan: Scot. Mid Lothian, Guun c.1134, Guuan c. 1150, Govan c. 1275, Gwuan
c. 1275, cf. W. ban (point, hill, or crest). Cumbric *gwovan also *govan (a
small hill or slight crest of land). Gragareth: The Three Men of Gragareth:
Yorks, Whernside, a topographical feature. Could be reconstructed into Welsh
as y tri mein y gorgaered, meaning the three rocks (y tri mein) of the limit
(gor) of the city wall (gaered). Cumbric *y tri mein y gor gairedd.

Hesketh: Lancs. Heschate c.1288, Heskayth c.1298, c.W. hais coed (prickle
wood). Cumbric *hais caidd. Heskin: Lancs. Heskyn c.1257, cf. W. hesgen
(sedge, rush). Cumbric *hescen.
Hints: Staff. Hintes c.1199, also Hints, Shr. Hintes c. 1242, Hyntes c.1292,
cf.W. hynt (road, way, course). Cumbric *hynt


Ince: Chs.Ynes c.1100, also Ince in Makerfield, cf.W. ynys. Cumbric *ynys
Inchkieth: Scot., cf.W. ynys coed (island wood). Cumbric *ynys caith.

Kent: Lancs. A river-name, also Kennet, cf.W.cynnwyd (primary element).
Cumbric *cynnwith, var. *cynnoth.
Kenyon: Lancs. Kenien c.1212, cf.W. crug Enion (Enion's burial mound).
Cumbric *cruc Enion.
Ketton: Rut. Ketene c.1174, Chetena c.1146, cf.W. coeden (a tree). Cumbric
Kieth: Scot. Mid Lothian, this has inspired the personal name Kieth, which
means a wood, cf. W. coed, Corn. cos, and Bret. Koaz.. Cumbric *caidd
Kirkbrynnok: Cu. c.1339. A lost place-name, Kirkja Brynach, Brynach's
Church. Note the adoption of a Norse word yet Celtic grammar.
Kirkcambeck: Cu. Camboc c.1177, Kirkecamboc c.1280. Church (kirkja) on the
crooked stream (camboc).
Kirkley: Nth. Crikelawa c. 13th. Cent. A hybrid Celtic Saxon word meaning
hill (cruc) hill (hlaw).

Lamplough: Cu. Lamplou c. 1150, cf.W. llan plwyf, (parish church), cf. Corn.
lan plov. Cumbric *lan plof.
Lanark: Scot. Cf.W. llanerch (hay-field). Cumbric *lanarch. NB. The short E
before R plus stop has become short A.
Landican: Cu. Landekan c. 1281, cf. Llandegfan in Anglesay, Tegfan's Church.
Cumbric *lan decfan. NB. Note the lenition.
Lanercost: Cu. Lanercost c. 1271, cf.W. llanerch Awst, Augustus's hay-field.
Cumbric *lan Owst.
Lanrekaythin: Cu. Lanrecaithin c.1210. A lost place-name, cf.W. llanerch
eithin (meadow of furze). Cumbric *lanarch aithin.
Larbet: Scot., Sterlingshire, Lethberth c. 1196, cf.W. leddberth
(semi-bush). Cumbric *leddberth.
Laver: Yorks. Lauer c. 1307, also. Laversdale in Cumberland, Laverton in
Yorkshire, a river-name, cf.W. llafr (spreading) Cumbric * lafer.
Leeds: Yorks. Loidis c.730 (Bede), Ledes c.1196, possible a river-name
meaning flowing. Leen: Notts. Liene c.1200, also Lyne in Northumberland,
Lina c.1050, cf.W. lliant (torent). Cumbric *lian. NB. Absence of final S.
Leswalt: Scot. Galloway, cf.W. llys wellt (grassy court of manour house).
Cumbric *lys walt. NB. Note the change of short E into short A before liquid
plus stop. In Welsh gwallt means hair. Leven: Chs. A river-name,
Levene c.12^0, also Leven in Lancashire and Yorkshire, cf.W. llyfniad
(smootness). Cumbric *lyfeni. Lickle: Lancs. River-name, Licul c.1140,
cf.O.W. llig (gliding out or through). Cumbric *licol (abounding in water
Lindefferon: Scot. Fife, see Hint, cf.W. llyn dwr hynt (flowing water
course). Cumbric*lin dwr hynt.
Lindow: Chs. cf.W. llyn ddu (black lake). Lindreth: Cu. cf.W. llyn ddrud
(flow-rapid, i.e. a torrent). Cumbric *lin ddrudd.
Lingmell Crag: cf W. grug moel craig (heather-bald crag). Cumbric * ling
mail craic.
Linlithgow: Scot. Linlithcou c.1150, cf.W. llyn llaith cau (lake wet
hollow). Cumbric *lin laith cow. Liscard: Chs.
Lisenecark c.1256, cf.W. llys y carreg (stone manour house). Cumbric lis yn
carrec. NB. The definite article yn.
Liverpool: Lancs. Liverpul c.1194, Litherpol c.1222, cf. W. llifr pwl
(conflux pool) and litthr pwl (slip pool). This is a reference to a small
pool that gave haven to fishing boats in medieval times, and which later
served as a dock, but which has since been filled in. Cumbric *lifr pwl,
*lithr pwl.
Lothersdale: Yorks. Loderesden c.1202, Lothereston c.1285, also Lauderdale
in Scotland, cf.W. lleidr (bandit), and cf. Corn lader (a thief). Cumbric *
cwm laiddr (bandit valley).
Lyne: Cu. Luene c.1292. Cumbric *lefeni. See Leven above. Lyvennet: Wst.
River-name Levenyd c.1292, Leveneth c.1292. This river is called Llwyfenyd
in the Welsh translation of Taliesin's original Cumbric poem Urien of
Rheged. Cumbric *lofenydd.
Lizard: Shp. Lusgerde c.664, lisgarde c.1291, cf.W. llys garth (court farm).
Cumbric *lys garth.

Mabbin Hill: Wst. personal name Mabon.
Macefen: Chs. Masefen c.1260, cf.W. maes y ffin (field at the boundary).
Cumbric *mais y ffin.
Maidencastle: Cu. formerly Carthonock c.1589, Thannock's Castle.
Mallerstang: Wst. Malrestang c.1223, Malvestang c.1228, cf.W. moel fre (bald
mountain), and cf. Nor. stongr (staff). Cumbric *mail fre stang.
Mamhead: Db. Mammeheved c.1242, cf.W. maen (a stone), cf.Manchester,
Mansfield, Mamesfeld c.1093, Mam Tor, etc. Cumbric *main. NB. This place
name includes the Norse word for head.
Manor: Scot., Peebles, Maner c.1323, cf.W. maenor (a district marked by
stones, or a manor house). Cumbric *mainor.
Maryport: Cu. formerly Aylnfoote c.1656. The river Ayln was called the
Alavna in Roman times. Ayln foot means the mouth of the Ayln; this is a
Celtic turn of phrase. Sir Humphrey Senhouse changed Aylnfoot into Maryport
after his wife Mary.
Maughonby: Cu. Merchamby c.1254. A Cumbric-Norse hybrid place-name meaning
Mercion's farm, from Roman personal name Marcianus. NB. The survival of
Romano-British personal names would suggest the survival of a Romano-British
Meckfen: Scot, Perthshire, Mekfen c. 1226, Mecven c.1443, cf.W. mign maen
(bog stone). Cumbric *myc fain.
Megget Water: Scot., Selkirkshire, also Meggeth, Cu., cf.W. mignydd (a bog),
also mignoedd (bogs). Cumbric * mygydd, pl. *mygaidd. Meigle: Scot.,
Perthshire, Migdele in The Legend of Saint Michael, cf.W. mign dol (bog
meadow). Cumbric *mig dol.
Melkinthorpe: Wst. Melcanetorp c.1150, cf. O.W. personal name Mailcun,
cf.O.Ir. Maelcian.
Mellor: Lancs. Melver c.1246, also Mellor Db. Melner c.1330, cf.W. moel fre
(bald hill). Cumbric *mail fre.
Melrose: Scot., cf.W. moel rhos, also Corn. mol ros (bald heath). Cumbric *
mail ros.
Menstrie: Scot. Clackmannen, Mestry c.1315, Menstry c.1392, cf.W. maes y
tre, also Corn. mes an tre (village of the open plain). Cumbric *mais tre,
and *mais yn tre. NB. The spellings menstry suggest that the definite
article became yn before a dental.
Methvan: Scot., Perthshire, Methven c.1211, cf.W. medd faen, also Corn. meth
ven (mead stone). Cumbric *medd fain.
Migvie: Scot., Stratherrich, cf.W. mign fa (a boggy place). Cumbric* mig fy
Morcambe Bay: Lancs. Cf. W. mor cam (crooked sea). NB. This is an example of
a trap for the unwary. Morcambe Bay was suggested by in Whitaker's The
History of Manchester 1771, as the sight of Ptolemy's Marikambe. There is a
Marricambe Bay in Cumberland whose origin is obscure. Pennines is another
such trap. The original name was Riggings, meaning the Ridges. The name
Pennines is an adaptation of the Appenines in Italy.
Morphie: Scot., Kincardine, cf.W. mor fa (sea place). Cumbric * mor fy.

Newton Arlosh: Cu. Arlosk c.1185, cf.W. llosg (fire). Cumbric *arlosc (land
cleared by burning) NB. Arlosh contains the intensive prefix ar- (over),
this indicates that such prefixes were in use in Cumbric. Niddrie: Scot.,
Edinburgh, Nudref c.1290, Nodref c.1336, cf.W. newydd dref (new town), also
Corn. noweth dref. Cumbric * now dref. Noe: Db. A river-name, Noue c.1300,
cf.W. nofio (to swim). Cumbric nofio (to flow or to float).

Ochiltree: Scot., Kyle and Galloway, Uchiltre c.1304, Uchiltrie c.1406, cf.
W uchel tre (high village), also cf. Corn. ughel tre. Cumbric *uchel tre.
Ogilvie: Scot., Perthshire, cf.W. uchel fa (high place), also cf. Corn.
ughel va. Cumbric *uchel vy.

Panbridge: Scot., Forfarshire, Pannebride c 1261, cf.W. pant Brigid (Briget's
valley). Cumbric * pan y Brigidd. NB. The G is a jod.
Panmure: Scot., Forfarshire, Pannemor c. 1261, cf.W. pant mawr (big valley),
also cf. Corn. pans mur. Cumbric *pan y mowr.
Pant: Scot. (Stair Parish in Ayrshire), cf.W. pant (valley), cf. Corn. pans.
Cumbric *pant. Pant: Wst. a field-name in Kendell Ward, cf.W. pant. Cumbric
*pant. NB. Field-names indicate a late survival of Cumbric.
Pardovan: Scot. Linlithgowshire, Purduuyn c. 1282, Pardovin c. 1542, cf. W.
par ddwfn (deep field), also Pardovingishill, Scot. Renfrewshire. Cumbric
*par ddwfn.
Parton: Scot. Cf.W. perth (a bush). Cumbric *perth.
Parwich: Db. Peuerwich c.966, cf.W. pefr wyg (bright farm or copse). Cumbric
*pefr wic
. Patterdale: Cu. Patrichesdale c. 1148. NB. Patrick's valley.
Peebles: Scot. Cf.W. pabell (a tent or pavillion). Cumbric *pabel.
Peffer: Scot. Cf.W. pefr (bright). Cumbric *pefr.
Pencaitland: Scot. Penketland c.1296, cf.W. pen coed llan (end of the wood),
cf.Corn. pen cos lan. Cumbric *pen caidd lan.
Penhurrock: Wst. c.1777. NB. Currock and currick are local words for a heap
of stones or a cairn. The currock in question is a stone circle on a
tumulus, grid 83-629104.
Pen Howe: Wst. a field-name in Kendall ward, a hybrid Cumbric-Norse
place-name, pen haugr.
Penistone: Scot. Selkirk, cf.W. pen yr ystrum (head of the bend). Cumbric
*pen ystrum. Penistone: Yorks. Peningeston c.1199, cf.W. pen yr
ystrum.Cumbric *pen yn ystrum. Pennystone: Scot. Kirkmabrek, cf.W. pen yr
ystrum (head of the bend). Cumbric *pen ystrum.
Penicuik: Scot. Edinburgh, cf.W. pen y coed, cf. Corn. pen an cok. Cumbric
*pen y coc. NB. This place-name, together with Blencogo, determines that the
ultimate C in coc became G in the plural, hence sing. *coc pl. *cogow.
Penketh: Lancs. Penket c. 1242, Penketh c. 1259, cf.W. pen coed (wood end)
cf. Corn. pen cos, cf. Bret. Pen koad. Cumbric *pen caidd.
Penkridge: Staffs. Pencric c.958, cf.W. pen crug. Cumbric *pen cruc
Penmanshiel: Scot. Berwickshire, a hybrid Cumbric and Norse place-name
containing Norse skali (a shelter), cf.W.pen maen. Cumbric *pen main
Pennigant: Scot. Roxburgh, cf.W. pen y gaint (end of the plain). Cumbric*pen
y gaint (end of the plateaux). Penyghent: Yorks. Penegent c.1307. NB.
Alternative pronunciations for the diphthong AI.
Pennymure: Scot. Roxburgh, cf. W. pen y mur (end of thewall). Cumbric *pen y
Penersax: Scot. Dumfriesshire, cf.W. pen y sais (hill of the Saxon). Cumbric
*pen yr sacs.
Penpont: Scot. Dumfries, cf.W. pen pont (bridge end), cf. Penpons in
Cornwall. Cumbric *pen pont.
Penrith: Cu. Penred c. 1167, Penreth c. 1185, Penerith c.1367, cf.W. pen
rhyd (ford end), cf.Corn. pen res. Cumbric *pen rydd.
Pensax: Wor. Pensex c 1231 (Saxon hill).
Penty: Scot. Lanarkshire, cf.W. pendy (main house, i.e. manor house). NB. No
lenition in penty.
Peover: Chs. Peuere c. 1277, cf.W. pefr (bright). Cumbric *pefr.
Pilling: Lancs. Pylin c.1246, cf.W. pyll (pool or creek). Cumbric* pylen
(diminutive, small pool or creek).
Plenmellior: Nb. Plenmenewre c.1256, Playnmelor c.1279, cf.W. blaen moel vre
(summit of bald mountain). Cumbric *(mar) plain mail vre. NB. The initial
sharp mutation of B into P indicates that explained.
Plenploth: Scot., cf.W. blaen y plwyf (parish front or before the parish).
Cumbric *(mar) plain plof
Poltragow: Cu. Poltraghaue c.1485, cf.W. pwll trachau (hills protruding into
lowland). Cumbric *pol trachow.
Polmaise: Scot. Stirlingshire, cf.W. pwll maes (field pool). Cumbric *pol
Pontheugh: Scot. Berwickshire, Hugh's Bridge.
Preesall: Lancs. Preshoved c.1190. A Hybridf Cumbric and Norse place-name
meaning Brushwood Head, cf.W. prys (brushwood, fuel), cf.Corn pres (meadow).
RC, *prys.
Presmennan: Scot. East Lothian, Presmunet c. 1160, cf. W. prys mynedd
Cumbric *prys monedd. NB. O before nasal plus stop remains unaltered.
Prenlas: Scot. Leslie Parish in Fife, cf.W. pren glas (green plank). NB. The
lenition in Prenlas. Cumbric* pren las. NB. Lenition.
Priorsdale: Cu. Presdale c.1280, cf.W. prys.

Raswraget: Cu. a lost place-name in Eskdale Ward, Roswrageth c.1169, cf.W.
rhos wragedd (woman moor). Cumbric * ros wragedd.
Redmain: Cu. Redeman c.1188, cf.W. Rhyd y Maen (ford of stone) in Dolgelly.
Cumbric *ryd y main.
Roch: Lancs. River-name, Rachet c. 1292, cf.W. rheged (liberality, largess,
bounty). Rheged, an ancient Romano-British and Christian kingdom in England
during the Dark Ages. Cumbric * Regedd. Rochdale: Lancs. Rachedal c.1195,
Rachedham c.1193, (valley of the river Roch.)
Roose: Yorks. Rossa c. 1135, also Roose in Derbyshire, Rosse c.1156, Roose
in Cheshire, Roose c.1336, also Roos and Rossal in Lancashire, cf.W. rhos
(moor, heath). Cumbric *ros.
Ruthven: Scot. Perthshire, cf.W. rhudd faen (red stone), cf.Corn. ruth ven.
Cumbric rudd fain.

Seisdon: Staffs. Saiesdona c. 1130, Seisdon c.1243, Saxon's Down, cf.W, sais
(Saxon), cf. Corn. saws (saxon). NB. Compare with Penersax and Glensax.
Cumbric *sais.
Sherbourn-in-Elmet: Yorks. Silva Elmete c.730, Elmed saeta (Bede), Elmet c.
800, Elmete c.1212, Elmeticos found on a tombestone in Carnarvan, cf.W.
Soss Moss: Chs. Gael. sos. It is interesting to find a Gaelic place-name so
far south.

Talkin Fell: Cu. Talkenfell c.1589, cf. W.& Corn., tal (brow) and can
(white), Bret. Tal kan. Cumbric *tal can,
Tallentire: Cu. Tanentire c.1160, cf.W. tal y tir (end of the land), Corn.
tal an tyr. Cumbric *tal yn tir, NB. The definite article before dental.
Tarnmonath Fell: Cu. This is a hybrid Cumbric and Norse place-name, cf. W.
mynydd, (mountain) cf.Corn meneth. Tarn from tjorn. Cumbric *monedd. NB.
This place-name preserves the Cumbric word monedd as monath. The vowels O
and U before nasal plus stop did not in Cumbric, unlike the rest of the
P-Celtic languages, experience sound change. This in itself is sufficient to
establish Cumbric as a separate language in itself, and not just a dialect
of Welsh. Note also the ability of Cumbric to adopt load words such a tjorn.
Tarvin: Chs. Tervin c.1209, cf.W. terfyn (boundary), from Lat. terminus.
Teman: Cu. Tenman c.1346, Temayne c.1568, cf.W. tan maen (fire stone),
cf.Corn. ten men. Cumbric * tan main. NB. Tean bonfires were lit at May Eve
and Halloween in the Northern England and cattle were passed through two
bonfires to cure murrain, tean, pron. tee-an, is a dialect word for a
Tercrosset: Cu. Torcrossoc c.1193, cf.W. croesog (abounding in crosses), cf.
Corn. crowsek. Cumbric *tor crosoc. viz. Welsh place-names such as Tor y
Terregles: Scot. Galloway, formerly Traveregles, cf. Corn. place-name
Treveglos (church town or a village containing the parish church). Cumbric
*tref yr egles.
Torpenhow: Cu. Torpennoc c.1163, cf. W. penog (abounding in peaks). C.
Torwood: Scot. Dunfrieshire. According to one theory that is put forward
from time to time itinerant Cornish miners living amongst the Anglo-Saxons
of Scotland were responsible for this Celto-Saxon hybrid.
Trabroun: Scot., in Lauderdale, Treuerbrun c.1170, cf.W. tref y bryn
(village on the hill), also Trabroun in Haddington, Scotland. Cumbric *tref
yr bryn. NB.Definite article.
Trenant: Scot. Edinburgh, formerly Trevernent, cf.W. tref y neintydd (town
of the steep sided valley). Cumbric * tref yr neint. NB. Note the definite
article and the Cumbric plural of the word nant.
Traprain: Scot. Haddington,Trepren c.1335, cf.W. trefbren (plank village).
It if possible that this settlement was composed of scalis, which consists
of planks covered in turves and fashioned in a circular pattern, the ends of
the planks being fixed by a circle of stones, the original for Hobbit Hole
.Cumbric *tre pren NB. No lenition.
Treales: Chs. cf. W. tref y llys (village containing the court, which is to
say the court of the local dengi or ruler and tax collector).
Trevercraig: Scot. Carrick, cf.W. tref y craig (village of stone), also
Trevercrageis: Ayrshire in Scotland. Cumbric * tref yr craic.
Triermain: Cu. Treverman c.1169, cf.W. tref y maen (village of stone).
Cumbric *tref yr main.
Troloss: Scot. Lanarkshire, cf.W. tre llwst (village tail), cf. Corn. tre
lost. Cumbric * tre lwst.
Trusty's Hill: Scot. This place-name refers to Tristan who was a local
chief, viz. the legend of Tristan and Isolde.
Tulketh: Lancs. cf. W. twll coed (cave or pit wood). Cumbric *twl caidd.

Warren Burn: Nb. Warnet c.1157, cf.W. gwernydd (alder trees, or a bog or
marsh). Cumbric*gwarnydd. NB. E before R plus stop becomes A.
Watermellock: Cu. Wethermelok c.1253, cf.W. gwydr moelog (green or blue
baldness, i.e. a heath). Cumbric *gwydr mailoc.
Werneth Low: Chs. Wernyth c.1352, cf,W, gwernydd (alder trees).
Wharf: Yorks. A river-name, Verbeia, meaning a winding river, Weorf c.963,
Werf c.1112, Warf c. 1155, Hwef c.1155. Cumbric *gwerf & *gwarf. NB. The
pesent name is from the Norse word hvarf, which means a bend. Note also how
E before R became A in the second spelling. This sound change is a feature
of Cumbric.
Winister: Wst. Winster c.1170, cf.Gwensteri (white stream) in a verse by
Taliesin. Cumbric *gwyn ysteri.
Winwick: Lancs. Winequic c.1170, Wynewich c.1212, cf.W. gwyn wyg (white
village), cf.Corn. gwyn wyk. Cumbric gwyn wyc.

Yeavering: Nb. Adgefrin (Bede), Yever c.1242, Yevre c.1329, also Yeavering
Bell, a nearby hill, cf. W geifr ryn (goat's hill), cf.Corn. gever bryn.
Cumbric *geifr ryn. NB. G pronounced as a jod, as in Welsh.
Yanwath: near Penrith, cf.W. un (one, only, single). Cumbric *un wadd. (only
ford). NB. Gwadd is a loan word from Norse vadr meaning a ford.

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PostPosted: Fri Jun 27, 2008 11:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote


Below is an accound of the sound changes that occurred in the development of
modern P-Celtic languages from Prythonic

Prythonic short A Prythonic long-A Prythonic short E Ptythonic long E
Prythonic short I Prythonic long I Prythonic short O Prythonic long O
Prythonic short U Prythonic long U
Prythonic short-A remained unchanged in Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and
Cumbric. Examples of Prythonic short-A can be found in many Cumbric
place-names Prythonic long-A changed into long-O or O-mega in proto-Welsh,
proto-Cornish, proto-Breton, and proto-Cumbric, O-mega subsequently changed
into the diphthong short O anf U (OU) in Welsh, Cornish, and Breton, but
Q-mega is still a feature of North British speech and can be found in
medieval Cambok and Kirkecambok. Prythonic short-E remained unchanged in
Welsh, Cornish, and Breton, but in Cumbric short-E changed into short-A
before the consonants L, and R, as in the place-names Leswalt, Warren Burn,
Parton, and Tarvin. An intrusive short-E also developed in Cumbric between
the consonants stop plus L and R ass inLotherdale. Short-E disappeared
between L and R followed by a stop, for example Cardurnock, cf. Welsh
durenog. Note also the Cumbric word galnas in Leges Inter Brettos et
Scottos, cf. galanas. Prythonic long-E became long-I in Welsh, Cornish,
Breton, and Cumbric, for example the Cumbric place-name Keer derived from
Prythonic *ceros. Prythonic short-I Prythonic short-I remained unchanged in
Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric. Prythonic long I remained unchanged in
Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric. Prythonic long I Prythonic short-O
remained unchanged in Cumbric, but in Welsh, short-O became short-U before a
nasal and before a liquid plus stop, and short-I in pretonic syllables, for
example the Welsh word mynydd appears with short-O in the place-name
Tarnmonath Prythonic long-O became the diphthong short-OU in Welsh, Cornish,
Breton, and Cumbric, but because long-O persists in local dialect, long-O
perhaps remained unchanged in Cumbric Prythonic short-U generally remained
unchanged in Welsh, Cornish, and Breton, but there was a tendency for it to
become short-O in Cumbric, as in Pardovan and Troloss. Short U became short
I in Welsh, Cornish, and Breton before a nasal plus stop, but remained
unchanged in Cumbric. Prythonic long U became long-I in Welsh, Cornish,
Breton, and Cumbric, but place-name evidence indicate that this change was
slow in Cumbric, but the place-names Cardew and Dintsmere indicate this
sound change. Aberuthven long U as long I

A Comparison Between Welsh and Cumbric Diphthongs

Welsh AE comparative to Cumbric long-E Welsh AE comparative to Cumbric
short A Welsh AI comparative to Cumbric short A Welsh OE comparative to
Cumbric AI
The Welsh word maen appears as ling-E in Aberruthven

Prythonic long-U

Prythonic long-U remained unchanged in Welsh, Cornish, Breton. In Cumbric
Prythonic long W became long O as in the Cumbric place-names such as
Polmaise and Poltragon.

Welsh AE into AI

Four Cumbric words have been preserved in Cumbric place-names (written
Cumbric). The Welsh equivalents of these words in Welsh are caer, blaen,
baedd, and maen (examples; Aberruthven, Bathgate, Blencarn, Blencogo,
Blencow, Blenecrayk c. 1268, Blenerhasset, Caraverick, Cardew, Careona,
Cardunneth Pike, Cardurnock, Carfrae, Carwinley, Castle Carrock, Gragareth.
As will become apparant later Cumbric spelling became simpler than Welsh,
and for this reason the Welsh diphthongs AE, AI, and OE are all respelt AI
when translating Welsh words containing these three Welsh diphthongs into
Cumbric. The general rule to follow is that AI is pronounced as long E
except before R, in which case AI is pronounced as short A. Long E has been
preserved in North country speech. The nearest English equivaled is AI as in
air; hence *blain is pronounced not of course as blairn, but as blai(r)n as
in ai(r) with the R missing. When pronouncing the English word air you might
notice a slight tightening of the throat, this tightening is necessary to
get the correct sound.

Welsh OE into AI

Bathgate, Bathchet c. 1160, Clesketts, Culcheth, Culgaith, Dalkieth,
Hesketh, (Heskayth c. 1298), Inchkieth, Ketton, Kieth, Lingmell, Crag,
Mallerstang, Menstrie, Mellor, Melrose, Plenmellior, and Plenploth. The
spelling AÍ for Northern long E are found in Culgaith (Culgayth c. 1232) and
Hesketh. This spelling has been adopted in order to avoid confusion with
short E. The diacritic mark Í is added in order to avoid long E being
pronounced as a diphthong.
In most cases Welsh OE appears as AI in written Cumbric (see. Heskayth,
Culgaith), the exceptions being A as in Mallerstand and long I in Kieth,
Dalkieth, and Inchkieth. This last spelling can be taken as a very late
pronunciation of AI as long I. The Mallerstang can be taken as corroberation
of the above rule that Welsh AE is respelt as A before R upon the grounds
that Mallerstang was affected by the spelling of CAR corresponding to Welsh

Welsh AI into Cumbric AI or A

AI The Welsh diphthong AI becomes either short A in Cumbric, as in
Pennigant, or Short-E as in Penyghent. Blindcrake Blenecrayc c.1268

Camblesford Camelesford c. 1311
Carrick plus dialect Wst
Castel Hewin Castelewyne c. 1272
Glencoyn Glencaine c.1212
Longmel Crag
Because Penigant is in Scotland and Penygent in Northern England then the
suggestion is that Welsh AI is translated as A in Scottish Cumbric and as AI
in Northcountry Cumbric, thereby casting a patriotic sot into the soup.

Welsh AU into Cumbric OW

Blencogo preserved the plural cogow, meaning cuckoos, the diphthong OW
corresponding to the Welsh diphthong AU as in cogau, the Welsh for cuckoos.

Welsh AW into Cumbric OW

The Welsh diphthong AW becomes the short-diphthong OU, written as OW in the
place-name Lanercost. The Welsh for Lanercost if Llanerch Awst, the
surviving Cumbric being Lanerc Ost, corresponding to Reconstructed Cumbric
Lhanarch Owst.

The Welsh diphthong EI into Cumbric AI

EI becomes AI in the Cumbric place-name Lanerkaythrin.
The Welsh diphthong EU into AW and OW

EU appears into AW and OW

EU appears as AW or OW in medieval spellings of the Cumbric place-name
Carwinley (Carwyndelawae, Karwendelowe). The suggestion this time is that
the choice should be left to the individual.

The Welsh diphthong EW into U and OU

Welsh EW appears as long-W and the diphthong short-OU in the medieval
spellings of Niddrie (Nodref, Nudref).

IW The Welsh diphthong IW remains as IW in the place-name Cumrew.
The Welsh diphthongs EO, IO, and Yw appear as EW in cognate Cornish words,
and so presumable would appear as IW in Cumbric.
OE The Welsh diphthong OE becomes short-E in the place-names Culcheth,
Hesketh, Mellor, Melrose, Plenmellior, and Tulketh, but as long-I in the
place-names Cheetham and Kieth, and the diphthong EI in Culgaith.
OI, OU The Welsh diphthongs OI and OU are very rare in Welsh and no Cumbric
equivalents have survived.
WA The Welsh diphthong WA remains unchanged in the medieval Cumbric
place-name Wastpatrick Wath.
WY The Welsh diphthong WY appears as both WI and the diphthong short-OU in
the medieval spelling of the river-name Goyt (Got and Gwith).
UA The Welsh diphthong UA in buarth appears as short-I in the Cumbric
place-names Birdoswald and Burtholm.
UO The Welsh diphthong UO appears as the triphthong short-IVO in the
place-names Devoke Water and Cumdivock, cf. W. duog, dark, hence *cwm divoc
for cwm duog.

B Welsh B remains unchanged in Cumbric place-names such as Blencogo. Etc.
C Welsh Remains unchanged in Reconstructed Cumbric.
Ch Welsh ch appears unaltered in Eccle Fechan, and so remains unchanged.
D Initial Welsh D remains unchanged, but elsewhere Welsh D appears as DD or
voiced-th in Culcheth, Culgaith, Penketh, Tulketh, Lothersdale,
andWethermellock. This represent a sound change in original Cumbric. Initial
Welsh D remains unchanged in Reconstructed Cumbric but becomes DD elsewhere.
DD Welsh DD remains unchanged in Roswrageth, *rhos wragydd, and so remains
unchanged in reconstructed Cumbric.. TH Welsh TH or unvoiced-th remains
unchanged in Lanrekaythin, and so remains unchanged in reconstructed
F Welsh F remains unchanged in Eccle Fechan, Carfrae, Macefen, and remains
unchanged in Reconstrcuted Cumbric despite being spelt as V elsewhere. There
was what seems to be a sound change in Late Cumbric from F into FF as in
Lindifferon, and Peffer. FF Welsh FF remains unchanged within Reconstrcuted
G Welsh G becomes C in Cumbric place-names with a few exceptions, for
example Penicuik, which in Welsh is pen y cog, has to be compared with
Blencogo. In Cumbric cuckoo was coc in the singulart but cogow in the
plural, hence *pen y coc for Penicuik, and *blen y cogow for Blencogo.
GW Welsh GW remains unchanged in Din Gouary, the old name for Bamborough. It
alsoappears as WH in Couwhencatte, and H in hestada, a North British and
Manx tax recorded in the Doomsday Book, and which corresponded to the
medieval Welsh tax called gwestfa. Welsh GW remains unchanged in
Reconstructed Cumbric.
LL Welsh LL appears to have disappeared in Cumbric, and appears as L in
Landican, Lanercost, Linlithgow, Liscard, etc., yet despite this LL is spelt
LH in Cumbric despite being pronounced as L.
R is always trilled in Cumbric, even when R appears at the end of a word.



An English-Cumbric Dictionary

Some of the following Celtic words are taken from SKEAT'S ETYMOLOGICAL


Able; v. (to be able) galhu (W. gallu, Corn. gallos); able, powerful, adj.
galhuoc (W. galluog Corn. gallosek); ability, power m.n.
galhu (W. gallu).
About; prep. am (W. am); about, concerning, cylch (W. cylch).
Above; prep. uch (M.W. uch, W. uwch, Corn. a-ugh).
Account; m.n. cyvriv pl.-on (W. cyfrif, pl. -on); to reckon up. ar bop
cyvriv (W. ar bob cyfrif); by no means, thim ar yun
cyvriv (W. ddim ar un cyfrif).
Acid; m.n. sur, pl. surio (W. sur, plus double negative i+on, Cumbric double
negative i+o).
According to; adv. yn ol (W. yn ol)
Act; v. to play, gwarai (M.W. gwara Corn. gwary); acting, play, sport m.n.
gwarai (Din Guarray, the name of Bamburgh
recorded by Nennius), cf. W. gwarae; to play (a musical instrument, etc.),
also W. chwarae.
Addition; m.n. whaneci pl.-o (W. chwanegiad); additional, adj. whanecol;
added, adj. whanegoc.
Adjustment; f.n. treven, pl. trevnow (W. trefn, pl. -au).
Advertisement; f.n. haithi, pl.-o (W. hoeddiad); to advertise, v. haithi (W.
heddu); public, adj. haith (M.W. hoedd, W.
After; prep. wethi (W. wedi, Corn. wosa); after, adv. ar ol (W. ar ol);
after him, ar ei ol.
Again; adv. yun ail amser (one other time).
Against; prep. arbyn (W. yn erbyn, Corn. erbyn); against him, yn ei arbyn.
Agreement; m.n. cyssonianth, pl.-ow (W. cysoniant, Corn. kessenyans); to
agree, v.cysoni (W. cysoni, Corn.kesseny); regular,
consistent, agreeable, pleasant, f.n. cysson (W. cyson, Corn. kesson).
Air, Atmosphere; f.n. aor, pl.-yow (W. awyr, pl. -iau, Corn. ayr, Bret.
All; prep. olh (W. oll, Corn. oll); overalls, m.n. yucholhow.
Almost; adv. agos (W. agos, Corn. ogas)
Along; adv. omlain (W. ymlaen); along, prep. ar hydd (W. ar hyd).
Among; m.n. yn mysc (W. ymysg, Corn. yn-mysk).
Amount; m.n. cyvandder (W. cyfander).
Amusement; m.n. dithan (W. diddan); to amuse, v. dithani (W. diddanu).
And; conj. a, ac (W. a, ag, Corn.& Bret. ha, hag.)
Angle; f.n. angl, pl. -o (W. ongl pl.-au).
Anger; m.n. dic (W. dig); angry adj. from (W. ffrom); to be angry, v. fromi
(W. ffromu); to anger, make angry, v. digio (W. digio).
Animal; f.n. mil, pl. -io (W. mil, pl. -oedd, Corn. myl, pl. mylyow).
Answer; m.n. gorep,pl. gorebio (Med.W. goreb, pl. -ion, cf. Corn. gorthyp,
pl. gorthebow; to answer, v. gorebi (W. gorebu).
Ant; m.n. mor, pl. -io (dial. piss-more, piss-mire, Med.W. mor, Corn.
Apparatus; m.n. tacel, pl. taclen (Dan. takkel, W. tacl).
Apple; m.n. aval, pl. -o (W. afal, pl. -au, Corn. aval pl. avallow).
Approval; m.n. cloth, pl. -o (W. clod, pl. ydd); to approve, v. clothi (W.
Arch; m.n. bo, pl. bwo (W. bwa, pl. bwau)
Army; m.n. li pl. lio (W. llu, pl. lliaw, Corn. lu, pl. luyow).
Art; f.n. celv, pl. -o (W. celf, pl. -au).
As; conj. val (W. fel); prep., a, ac (W. a, ag), adv. mor (W. mor).
At; prep. at (Scan. at. W.ger); prep. at (Scan. at, W. yn).
Attack; m.n. cerch, pl. -o (W. crych, -au); to attack, v. cerchi (W.
Attempt; m.n. ces pl. -io (W. cais, pl. -iau); v. to attempt, to try, cesio
(W. caisio).
Awake; adj. efro (W. effro): to awaken, v. efroi (W. effroi).

Baby; m.n. babi, pl. babio (med. W. babi, cf. Corn. baby, Eng. baby)
Bad; adj. drwc, pl. drwgo (W. drwg, pl. drygau, cf. Corn. drok, pl. drogow.)
Bag; m.n. sach, pl. sacho (W. sach, pl. -au, Corn. sagh, pl. seghyer).
Balence; f.n. mantol, pl. -io (W. mantol, pl. -ion, Corn. mantol, pl.
mantolyow: to balence, v. mantoli (W. mantolu, Corn. mantolly.)


























A Cumbric-English Dictionary

Aber nm pl aberi, var. abar, a conflux, water meetings of a river, stream,
or brook, mouth of a river.
Ald f.n. pl. eild, a cliff, woody hill.
Averic nm pl. averigow, a cowslip


Bab m.n.pl babi, a baby [Babe: M.E. bab, baban, cf. Corn. baban, W. mab,
maban, O.W.maqvi, cf. Gael. mac.]
Baban adj., baby.
Bag m.n. pl bagio, a bag [M.E. bagge, Gael. balg, bolg, bag].
Banoc m.n. pl. banogio, cf. Gael. bonnach, a kind of cake.
Bar nm pl baro, a small hill, a bar or a rail, [Gael.& Ir. barra].
Barth nm pl. beirth, a poet [W. bardd, Gael. bard].
Barol nm pl barolo, a barrel [M.E. barol, cf.W. baril, Ir. bairile,
Gael.baraill, Manx. barrel].
Bascedd nf pl basceddi, a basket [W.basged, Ir. basceid].
Bloc nm pl blocco, a block or plug [M.E. blok, W. ploc, a block or plug, cf.
Gael. ploc, also Ir. blogh, O.Ir. blog, & Ir. pluc, ploc.]
Blujjon nm pl blujjuni, a bludgeon or club. [E. bludgeon W. plocyn, cf. Ir.
blocan, dimin. of ploc, Gael. plocan, a mallet or club.]
Bog nm pl boggi, a bog, a toilet [Ir. bog, soft, bogach, a bog, bogaim, I
shake, Gael. bogan, a quagmire, bog, soft, moist, bog, to soften or
Bogol nm pl bogolo, a spectre, will o' the wisp in a bog, a lepricorn.
Boggol nm pl boggoli, to stare with bulging eyes [Prov. Eng. boggle, bogle,
a spectre. W. bwgwl, a threat; bygly, to scare; bwgwth, to scare.]
Brin nm pl brinio, a small hill, a hill [Bryn in Lancs, W. bryn]
Brisc adj brisk, quick [Scots. brisk, bruisk, quick, W.brysg, cf. Gael. to
start with surprise, leap for joy, Ir. briosg, to start, a bounce.]
Bump nm pl bumpio, a bump, a swelling caused by a bump [W. bwmp, to bump, yn
BARROCK a spur
BATH a boar
BORDD a cowfold, dairy
BRANT a steep fell
BLA a wolf
BLEN flat of a fell top
BOC a stream
BRUN a hill
BRYN a hill

Baban a baby. e: M.E. bab, baban, cf. Corn. baban, W. mab, maban, O.W.maqvi,
cf. Gael. mac.
Bag: a bag M.E. bagge, Gael. balg, bolg, bag.
Bannock: Gael. bonnach, a kind of cake.
Bar: W. bar, a rail, Gael.&Ir. barra..
Bard: W. bardd, Gael. bard
Barrel: M.E. barol, cf.W. baril, Ir. bairile, Gael.baraill, Manx. barrel.
Basket: W.basged, Ir. basceid.
Block: M.E. blok, W. ploc, a block or plug, cf. Gael. ploc, also Ir. blogh,
O.Ir. blog, & Ir. pluc, ploc.
Bludgeon: W. plocyn, cf. Ir. blocan, dimin. of ploc, Gael. plocan, a mallet
or club.
Bog: Ir. bog, soft, bogach, a bog, bogaim, I shake, Gael. bogan, a quagmire,
bog, soft, moist, bog, to soften or agitate.
Boggle: Prov. Eng. boggle, bogle, a spectre. W. bwgwl, a threat; bygly, to
scare; bwgwth, to scare.
Bump: W. bwmp, to bump, yn bwmpio.


Cabin: M.E. caban, W. caban, a boothe, dim. of cab, a boothe made with rods
put in the ground and tied together at the top, cf. Ir. and Gael. caban, a
boothe, hut, ot tent.
Cairn: Gael. gen. of carn, a pile of stones, cf. Ir. W. Bret. a pile of
stones. Gael. v. carn, to pile up.
Car: M.E. carre, a chariot, cf. Bret. karr, also W. Ir. Gael. O.F. car, a
Cess-pool: Prov. Eng. suss, soss, a puddle, hogwash, mess, Gael. sos, an
unseely mixture of food, cf.W. sug, moisture, also soch, a drain.
Coax: from cokes, a simpleton, fool, see cog.
Cob: M.E. cob, the head of a person, W. a tuft, a spider; copa, crown of the
head, cf. cobweb, a spider's web, also cf. M.E. cobylstone, dimin. of cob;
hence, cob, cobyl.
Cog: M.E. cog, a tooth on the wheel of a rim, cf. Ir. and Gael. cog, a mill
cog,cf. W. cocos, cocs, cogs of a wheel.
Cog, to trick: W. cog, empty, vain, coegio, to trick, to render void.
Coil, noise, bustle: Gael. goil, noise, battle, Ir. to boil, rage.
Combe, a hollow in a hillside: W. cwm, Corn. cum, a hollow, dale. cf.Ir.
cumas, a dale.
Coot: M.E. cote,coote, W. cwtiar, a coot, lit. cwt, a tail, iar, a hen. cf.
W. v. cwtan, to shorten, dock, Corn. cut, short, Scots. cutty, short.
Cut: M.E. cutten, to cut, W. cwtan (as above), W. cwtws a lot or portion,
M.E. n. cut, a lot or portion, cf. Gael. cutaich, to shorten, cut.
Crag: W. craig, Gael. creag, a crag or rock, cf. W. careg, also Gael.
carraig, a rock or cliff, also Gael. carr, a rock.

Dad: W.tad, Ir. daid, Bret. tat
Dagger: M.E. dagere, v. daggen, to pterce, cf. W. dagr, Bret. dag, dager,
Ir. daigear, O.Gael, daga, a dagger,pistol
Darn: W. darnio, to break into pieces, to pierce, darn, a piece, fragment,
Corn. and Breton darn, a gragment, piece.
Dock: W. tocio, to clip, dock, tocyn, a short piece,mod. a ticket.
Drab: Ir. a spot, stain, Ir. drabog, Gael. drabag, a slut, Gael. drabach,
Drudge: M.E. druggen, Ir.drugaire, a drudger, drudge, slave.
Druid: W. derwydd, a druid, cf. Gael. druidh, Ir. druidh, an auger.
Dun: W. dwn,dun, dusky, cf. Ir. and Gael. donn, brown.
Dunek: a hedge sparrow.

Goggles: M.E. gogil eyid, goggle-eyed, Gael. and Ir. gogshuileach, side
glance, having wandering eyes,goggle-eyed, Ir. gogor, light in demeanour,
Gal. gogach, nodding, fickle, Ir. gogach, wavering, reeling, Ir. and Gael.
gog, to nod, to move slightly.
Gowan: a daisy, Gael. and Ir. gogan, a flower, daisy.
Gown: M.E.gounee, W. gwn, Corn. gun, cf.Gael, gun, Ir. gunn,Manx. goon.
Gyves: M.E. gives, gyues, fetters, W. gefyn, Gael. and Ir. geimheal, a
fetter, bondage, captive, also Ir. var. geibheal, Ir. geibhim, I get,
obtain, Ir. gabh I take.

Flummery: W. llymry, llymruwd, sour oatmeal boiled and jellied, flummery, W.
llymrig, crude, llymus, sharp, llymu, to sharpen, llym, sharp.

Hap: M.E. hap, Icel. happ, chance, hap, good luck, W. hap.
Hassock: M.E. hassok, orig. sedge, coarse grass, W. hesog, sedgy, hesg,
plural of hesgyn, a sieve, hesior, a hassock, seisg, a sedge or reed bog.

Knob: weakened form of knop, see knop.
Knack: W. cnep, a snap, finger snap, jester's trick, desterity, a joke,
triffle, toy, Gael. cnac, Ir. cnag, a crack, v. cnagaim, I
knock, strike.
Knag: M.E. knagge, a peg, a knot in wood, W. cnwc, a lump, Gael. cnag, knob,
pin, peg, Ir. cnag, a knob,peg, cnaig, a knot in wood, cnagaim, I knock,
Knap: W. cnap, a knob, Gael. cnap, a knob, button, boss, stud, hillock, a
slight blow, v. cnap, to beator thump, Ir. cnap, a
knob, hillock, bunch,v. cnapaim, I stike, cf. Dan. kneppe, to snap, Swed.
knep, a trick.
Knave: M.E. knaue (knave), a boy, servant (Celtic boys being servants to the
Teutons), Gael. cnapach, a youngster, a stout smart boy orig. adj. knobby,
limpy stout, see knop.
Knock: M.E. knocken, W. cnocio, Corn. cnoucye
Knoll: M.E. knol, W. cnol, a knoll, hillock, Gael. a hill, knoll, hillock,
Ir. cnoc, a hillock, turnip.
Noggin: Ir. noigin, Gael. noigean, a noggin, Gael. cnagan, a little knob, a
peg, an earthen pipkin, Ir. cnogaire, a noggin. Gael. cnagaidh, bunchy, viz.
Knop: M.E. knop, a rose bud, see. W. cnap, see knap above.

Lad: M.E. ladde, W. llawd, a youth, Ir. luth, nimble, active, Gael. laidir,
strong, luth, strength.
Lag: W. llag, slack, Corn. lac, loose, remiss.
Lass: W. llodes, fem. form of llawd.
Loch: Gael. loch, a lake, W. llwch, Corn. lo, Bret. louch.
Lough: Ir. and N. Eng. see loch above.



CAM crooked, a bend
CAMER a conflux
CAR a villa, farmhouse (cair)
CAR THEW black farmhouse (cair ddew)
CARN a burial mound
COGOW cuckoos
CRAIG a rock
CRAYK a rock (craig)

DINNIS a temporary fortification
DER water (dwr)
DRONOW a circle of standing stones
DUNNOKE Donatus (Dunot)

E definite article, the (y)
ER definite article, the (yr)

KAL hard (cal)
KARTHUR a seat or throne (carthur)
KETH a wood (caidd)

LES a stream
LES a court
LOS a tail

MAN rock or stone (main)
MAKER a wall or ancient ruine
MELOK baldness
Main, n.m. pl. mein, rock, stone
Mais, n.m. pl. meis, field

Monedd, n.m. pl. moneddi, mountain, waste land.

Mower, adj. large, big.

Nanth, n.f. pl. neinth. v-shaped valley, a brook

Pen n.m. pl. pennow, head, chief, conical hill
Pren n.m. pl. prennow, plank, log, timber

RUTH red
RUTH VEN red stone (ruth vain)

Ister a stream (yster)

TREV vill, village
TULL pit, hole (tul)

WARNET alder trees (late var. gwarneth)
WETHER blue or green, bluish green (gwether)
WERNETH alder trees (gwerneth)
WITH a wood (gwith)
WICK a coppice (gwic)
WIN white (gwin)
WINSTER (gwen ysteri)

QUIC a coppice (wic)

YAN one (un)
YEVER a goat




1.. Gender of Nouns
Nouns and adjectives in modern P-Celtic languages are not declined. All
that remains of the original Prythonic declensions is ender. There were
originally three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. Nouns belonging
to the neuter gender passed into either the masculine or feminine genders
according to the similarity of neuter genders. In consequence a word may be
feminine in Cornish and masculine in Welsh. The general rule in
Reconstructed Cumliic is to follow Welsh usage.

2.. Plural of Nouns plurals are formed in three ways. i. By the addition
of plural suffixes. Two Cumbric plural suffixes have survived. These are -ow
as in Blencogo, which corresponds to Welsh -au, and ydd as in Werneth and
Warren Burn (Warnet c.1157), which corresponds to Welsh -ydd. ii. By vowel
mutation. An example of a plural formed by vowel mutation exists in the
place-name Tranent, earlier Trev er Nent, meaning the Villa of the Narrow
Valleys, the Cumbric of which is *tref yr neint. iii. By the existence of
aggregate plurals from which singulars are formed by the addition of
diminutive suffixes. A good example of this is Ketton in Rutland, which
means a tree. This in Cumbric is caithen, meaning a tree, from caith meaning
a wood. N.B., Some Welsh plurals are formed by vowel mutation and the
addition of plural suffixes. A good example of this is neintydd, the plural
of nant, which means a stream. It can be seen from the example of Trev er
Nent that the additional of plural suffixes after vowel mutations was
dispensed with in Cumbric.

3.. The Definite Article There are three Cumbric definite articles.
a.. The definite article y as in Blencogo (Blen e Cogou c.1256), the
Cumbric of which is *blain y cogow.
b.. The definite article yr as in Tranent (earlier Trev er Nent), the
Cumbric of which is *tref yr neint, and Terregles (earler Trev er Egles),
the Cumbric of which is *tref yr egles.
c.. The definite article yn as in Liscard (Lhis en Cark c.1256), the
Cumbric of which is *lys yn cark, and Tallentire, the Cumbric of which is
*tal yn tir.
The present grammatical rules apply.
a.. Cumbric y before consonants an in ar before consonants. yn before
T,D al before L.
b.. y before consonants yr before vowels all cases an before vowels yr
before vowels and H and H
c.. yn before T, D, H

4.. The Indefinite Article No indefinite article exists in Welsh, but
Breton has three indefinite articles, UR, UN, and UL, which are governed by
the same rule that governs the definite article. Cornish has a definite
article that is occasionally used to emphasise the noun. Cumbric follows
Cornish because of the Northcountry indefinite articles yan and yin,from
Cumbric un.

5.. The Genitive
Adjectival genitives are formed in Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric by
placing two indefinite nouns together, thus the Cumbric place-name Blencarn
means (The) Cairn's Summit. Whole genitive sentences can be formed, such as
the Welsh sentence: Sail ty mab brenin Lloegr, meaning, 'The foundation of
the house of the son of the king of England,' the Cumbric of which is *Sail
ty map brenin Lhaigr. ii. The definite article can be used in place of the
English 'of ' to form a genitive by being placed between two or more nouns,
such as the Welsh sentence: Y sail y ty y mab y brenin y Lloegr, hence the
Cumbric place-name Blencogo from *blain y cogow.

6.. Soft Mutation

In certain circumstances the first consonants of Celtic words can change.
This is called mutation.

Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
C - G C, K - G K - G, C'h C - G (Penyghent)
T - D T - D T - D T- D (Landican)
P - B P -B P - B P - B (Larbet)
G -silent G - silent G - C'h G - silent (Prenlas)
Gw - W Gw - W Gw - W Gw - W (Carwin)
B - F B - V B - V B - F (Carfrae)
D- DD D - DH D - Z D - DD
M - F M - V M - V M - F (Ruthven)

7.. Sharp Mutation

B - P D - T G - C GW - CW

8.. Rule 1 Cornish and Breton words that follow if (mar, ma), and Cumbric
words also, adopt sharp mutation. Welsh words following if (mar) adopt

9.. Aspirate Mutation

C - CH C, K - H Wh K - C'h C - CH (Penhurrock)
T - TH T- TH T - Z T - TH (Carnetly)
P - PH P - F P - F P - F (Dalfibble)

10.. Sharp Mutation

Welsh Cornish Cumbric
B - P B - P B - P (Plenmellior)
D - T D - T D - T
G - C G - K G - C
GW - QU GW - KW GW - QU (Cumquencath)

11.. Soft Mutation in Cumbric

C - G GW - W
T - D D - DD

B - F P - B
G - silent M - F

In Welsh there are twenty-one grammatical rules governing soft mutation.
It is obvious from place-name evidence that Cumbric deteriorate both in
vocabulary and grammar, so the general method is to accept a Welsh lenition
if at least one example can be found in a Cumbric place-name, and to accept
a Welsh lenition in the absence of a Cumbric place-name if at least in one
other example of the same lenition can be found in another P-Celtic
language. Some lenitions that appear only in Welsh can be accepted.
Rule 1
Feminine singular nouns undergo soft mutation after the definite article.
Example Penyghent and Pennigant Rule
Rule 2
Both masculine and feminine nouns adopt soft mutation after adjectives
such as hen (old) and cul (narrow). Example Culgaith
Rule 3
Nouns adopt soft mutation after the prepositions am (at, about), ar
(upon), at (towards), dros (over), drwy (through), dan (under), i (to), wrth
(with, by), o (of), hyd (to, till), heb (without), gan (with). Example
Yan-ar-bumpit, Shepherd's notation for sixteen.
Rule 4.
Nouns adopt lenition after the possessive pronouns thy and his in Welsh,
Cornish, Breton, and therefore in Cumbric also. (Welsh dy and ei, Cornish
dha and y, Breton da and e: Welsh 'th after a vowel, Cornish 'th after a
vowel, Breton 'az after a vowel.)
Rule 5
Nouns adopt lenition after two in Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric.
Example Dotheck, Shepherd's notation for nineteen.
Rule 6
In Welsh and Cornish, and therefore in Cumbric also, two adopts lenition
after the definite article.
Rule 7
In Welsh and Breton, and therefore in Cumbric also, feminine nouns adopt
lenition after the numeral one. In Cornish masculine nouns adopt lenition
after one and the indefinite article.
Rule 8
Nouns in Welsh, Cornish, and Breton, and therefore in Cumbric also, adopt
lenition after the adjective what.
Rule 9
Two nouns or an adjective and a noun can be joined together in Cumbric to
form a single word. Example Ogilvie (*ochilfa or highplace), Mellor
(*mailvre or baldhill).
Rule 10
Nouns and verbs adopt lenition after most prefixes in Welsh, Cornish,
Breton, and therefore in Cumbric also. Example Larbet, earlier lethberth
(*leddberth semi-bush).
Rule 11
Adjectives in Welsh, Cornish, and Breton, and therefore in Cumbric also,
adopt lenition after feminine singular nouns. Example Ecclefechan (*ecles
fechan, littlechurch), Drumburgh, earlier Dromboc (*drum bach, small ridge)
Rule 12
In medieval Welsh verbs after the pronoun e meaning it adopt lenition.
This same rule applies in Cumbric despite the fact that this rule does not
occur in any other P-Celtic language. This rule has been adopted from Welsh
for grammatical reasons. Rule 13
Welsh and Cornish verbs, therefore also verbs Cumbric, adopt lenition
after the interrogative particle A
Rule 14
Welsh and Cornish verbs, and therefore Cumbric verbs, adopt lenition after
the relative pronouns a and na.
Rule 15
Welsh and Cornish verbs, and therefore in Cumbric also, adopt lenition
after the conjunction when.
Rule 16
Verbs in Cornish and Breton adopt lenition after the negative particle,
but in Welsh all verbs adopt lenition except verbs that begin with C, P, T.
Cumbric follows Welsh usage on the presumption that Cumbric is closer to
Welsh that to Cornish and Breton.
Rule 17
Welsh verbs adopt lenition after the infinite particle yn. It is presumed
that because of the ease with which the Cumbric poems of Taliesin and
Aneirin were translated into Welsh that the same rule applies in Cumbric.

12.. Cumbric Aspirate Mutation
C - C'h P - F T - TH

Rule 1
Welsh and Cornish nouns and therefore Cumbric nouns also, adopt aspirate
mutation after the comparative particle NA, which is used with adjectives of
comparison. Rule 4 Welsh and Cornish words and therefore Cumbric words also,
following three adopt aspirate mutation. Welsh words following six, adopt
aspirate mutation but there is no need to adopt this usage in Cumbric.
Rule 2
In Cornish and Breton words following the first singular possessive
pronouns adopt aspirate mutation, but in Welsh they adopt nasal mutation. No
example of nasal mutation survives in Cumbric, but examples of aspirate
foundation exist in Cumbric place-names, therefore Reconstructed Cumbric
follows Cornish and Breton usage of aspirate mutation .
Rule 3
In Welsh and Cornish words following the feminine third singular
possessive (ei, 'i, 'w in Welsh and hy in Cornish) adopt the aspirate
mutation. The same pplied to Cumbric.
Rule 4
Welsh and Cornish nouns, and therefore Cumbric nouns also, adopted
aspirate mutation. The same would have applied to Cumbric.
Rule 5
In Welsh and Cornish words following three, and in Welsh words following
six, adopt aspirate mutation. The same would have applied to Cumbric.
Rule 6
In Welsh words following as (a) and also and (ac) adopt aspirate mutation.
The same might have applied to Cumbric. Rule 7
Welsh words following certain prefixes such as gor- and tra- adopt
aspirate mutation. The same might have applied to Cumbric.
Rule 8
Welsh words beginning with the consonants C,P, and T adopt aspirate
mutation after the negative particles na and ni. The same would have applied
to Cumbric.

13.. Cumbric Sharp Mutation
B - P (Plenmellior) D - T G - C GW - QU

Welsh words that follow the preposition if (mar) adopt soft mutation, but
in Cornish and Breton words that follow if (ma) adopt sharp mutation. An
example of sharp mutation in a Cumbric place-name exists and it must be
presumed that words that followed if in Cumbric also adopted sharp mutation.
The place name Plenmellior may have originally been part of a descriptive
sentence containing the word if (mar).

n.. Personal Pronouns

English Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
I fi, i my, y me mi, i
thou ti, sy te ti ti
he, him ef ef en ef
she hy, y hi hi hi
we, us ni ny ni ni
you, ye chwi why ch'wi chwi
they, them hwy, nhwy y int hwi

o.. Reflexive Pronouns

Welsh (and therefore Cumbric) possesses special reflective, conjunctive,
and emphatic pronouns.

English Welsh Cumbric
I myself myfy mivi
thou thyself tydy tidi
he himself efe eve
she herself hyhi hihi
it itself fo vo
we ourselves nyny nini
you yourselves chychwi chichwi
they themselves hwyntwi hwintwi

p.. Conjunctive Pronouns
English Welsh Cumbric
I also minnau minnow
thou also tithau tithow
he also yntau yntow
she also hithau hithow
we also nithau nithow
you also chwithau chwithow
they also hwythau hwythow

q.. Emphatic Pronouns English Welsh Cumbric
I myself also my finnau my vinnow
thou thyself also ty dithau ty dithow
he himself also fe hwyntwy ve hwinwy, var. ve hontwy
it itsself also efo ydd evo eth
she herself also hyhithau hy-hithow
we ourselves also nyninnau nyninnow
you yourselves also chychwithau chy-chwithow
they themselves also hwythau hwi-thow, var. ho-thow

r.. Possessive Pronouns
English Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
my fy, 'm ow(m) ma my, 'm
thy dy, 'th dha, 'th da, 'az dy, 'th
his ei, 'i, 'w e e ai
her, hers ei, 'i, 'w y e ai
ours agan ma ain agan
yours agas ho aich agas
theirs eu, 'u, 'w aga e ai, 'w
As in Welsh the Cumbric possessive pronouns become 'm, 'th, 'i, 'n, 'ch,
and 'u after a (and), and o (from), and ai become 'w after i (to). My and dy
are followed by soft mutation in Cumbric

s.. . Pronoun Objects
When the pronoun is the object of the verb particles are employed.
hi a-walth ef she sees him
ef e-gwalth hi him, sees she
ef a-walth hi he sees her
hi e-gwalth ef her, sees he

t.. Demonstrative Pronouns
English Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
this (m) hwn hemma hemman hon
this (f) hon hemma homan hon
these hyn - - hyn
that (m) hwnnw henna hennezh honno
that (f) honno henna hennezh honno
those hynny - - hynny

u.. Demonstrative Adjectives

The definite article precedes the noun. In Cornish and Breton
demonstrative adverb follows the noun.

English Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
this man y dyn hwn an den-ma al den-man yn dyn hon
this woman yr wraig hon an wrek-ma an wreg-man yr wraic hon
these people y dynion hyn an tus-ma an tud-man yn tudd hyn
that man y dyn hwnnw an den-na al den-se yn dyn (hon)no
that woman yr wraig honno an wrek-na an wreg-se yr wraic (hon)no
those people y dynion hynny an tus-na an tud-se yn tudd (hyn)ny

v.. Demonstrative Adjectives without a Qualifying Noun

Demonstrative adjectives without a qualifying noun are made in the same
way by using an indefinite article.
English Welsh Cornish Cumbric
these (m) y rhai hwn an re-ma y ra hon
these (f) y rhai yma an re-ma y ra yma
those (m) y rhai hyna an re-na y ra 'na
those (f) y rhai yna an re-na y ra 'na
N.B. In Cornish and Cumbric the levelling of the diphthong AI to E in the
case of Cornish and A in the case of Cumbric occasions the disappearance of
the preceding consonant. A levelling of y rhai hwn in Welsh to y ra-ma in
Cumbric follows the same linguistic rule that is responsible for the Cornish
y re-ma.

w.. The Demonstrative Adverb

English Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
here yma omma eman yma
there yna ena eno (azo) yna

The demonstrative adverb can also serve to answer to the English phrases,
"here is a.here are" and "there is a.there are." If the definite article is
used Cumbric, like Medieval Welsh and Cornish, uses the vocative, "Lo the
man" as in Medieval Welsh, "Wel y dyn," and in Cornish "Ot an den." Because
of the mutation of short E to short A in Cumbric the Cumbric equivalent is,
"Wal y dyn."

x.. The Adverbial Particle
In Welsh, Cornish, and Cumbric the adverbial particle yn is placed before
adjectives in order to turn them into adverbs, thus in Welsh drwg (bad) and
da (good) become yn ddrwg and yn dda, Cornish drok and da become yn-trok and
yn-ta, and so in Cumbric drwc and da become yn ddrwc and yn dda.

y.. Relative Pronouns
Welsh, Cornish, and Cumbric translations into Welsh possess relative
pronouns that correspond to the English relative "that" and "which". In
positive sentences this relative pronoun is A before vowels and consonants.
In negative sentences is NA before consonants but NAD in Welsh and NANS in
Cornish before vowels. The corresponding Cumbric is NADD. When a preposition
or the genitive "whose" is used the relative pronoun Y is substituted for A
in Welsh and the preposition is placed at the end of the sentence, thus on
Welsh, "Dyma'r llyfr y darllenais y stori ynddo" (Here is the book which I
read the story in it). Welsh "dyma" is a variant of "yma," which means here
or here is, and which corresponds to the Breton "eman". this rule appears in
Taliesin, for example;"Trist yd gwyn pob colledig" or ""Sadly does every
condemned one complain"; therefore it appears in Cumbric, hence, "Yma'r lyfr
y darlenais y saga ynddo." English Welsh Cumbric
the one yr hwn er hon
that which y neb e nep
such ones y rhai e rai
either y naill e nail
who pwy po, pui
what pa pa
which one pa un pa yan, pa yon
which ones pa rhai p rai
how many pa sol pa sol
where pa le pa le
why paham, pam pam
how are you pa sut sydd pa sit seth
In Welsh the relative pronoun pwy is followed by a special form of the
verb to be, which is sydd, or sy for short. It is not necessary to use the
phrase "pwy sydd" since "sydd" alone implies the interrogative pronoun "pwy".
Note that in Welsh relative pronouns occasion the lenition of G, B, D and M,
and the aspirate mutation of C, P. T. No example of aspirate lenition has
been discovered in Cumbric place-names with the result that only the
lenition of G, B, and D occurs after relative pronouns.

z.. Inflected Prepositional Pronouns
In Welsh the following prepositions are inflected by adopting the personal
pronoun, am (about), ar (upon), at ( towards), er (for), heb (without), hyd
(until), i (to), idd (into), han (from), can (with), o (from), odd (from),
tan (under), tros (over), trwy (through), oddiar (from upon), odditan (from
beneath), rhag (before), rhwng (among), wrth (by), and yn (in). Cumbric
follows Old Welsh, Cornish, and Breton usage. The Old Welsh inflection found
in the third person plural appears in Taliesin, "Deuddeg meib Israel a thair
mam iddu onaddu y doeth rhad a geisidydd mad." (The twelve sons of Israel
and three mothers to thee from them there came a blessing." English Welsh
Old Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
in me ynddof ynof ynnof ennon ynov
in thee ynddot ynot ynnes ennout ynoth
in him ynddo yno ynno ennan yno
in her ynddi yni ynny enni yni
in us ynddem ynem ynnon ennomp ynem
in you ynddoch ynoch ynnough enno'ch ynoch
in them ynddynt ynu ynna enno ynu
table border=1> EnglishWelshOld WelshCornishBretonCumbrid to meimiimidhem
(mo)dinimi to thee to him to her tu us to you to them to me imi imi dhem
(mo) din imi to thee iti iti dhes (so) dit iti to him iddo iddo dhodhno
dezhan iddo to her iddi iddi dhedhy dezhi iddi to us ini ini dhen deomp ini
to you ichwi ichwi dheugh deoc'h ichwi to them iddynt iddynt dhedha dezho
English Welsh Old Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric

upon me arnaf arnaf warnaf warnon arnaf upon thee arnat arnat warned
warnout arnath upon him arno arno warnodhe warnan arno upon her arni arni
warnedhy warni arni upon us arnom arnom warnan warnomp arnom upon you arnoch
arnoch warnough warnoc'h arnoch upon them arnynt arnu warnedha warno arnu
English Welsh Old Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
with me gennyf gennyf genen ganin gennyv
with thee gennyt gennyt genes ganit gennyth
with him ganddo ganddo ganso gantan gantho
with her ganddi ganddi gansy ganti ganthi
with us gennym gennym genen ganeomp gennym
with you gennych gennych genough ganeoc'h gennych
with them ganddynt ganddu gansa ganto ganthu

Am, such as in amdanaf for about me, adopts the preposition tan when
inflected. Some prepositions, such as uch or above are not inflected at all.
English Welsh
above me uchi i
above thee uchi ti
above him uchi ef
above her uchi hi
above us uchi ni
above you uchi chwi
above them uchi hwy

aa.. The Syntax of Adjectives
In Prythonic adjectives preceded the noun, as in some early Cumbric
place-names, but adjectives later began to follow the noun in all P-Celtic
languages. In Welsh there are a few exceptions, such as hen (old) and uchel
(high). With regard to uchel, this is confirmed in Cumbric by the Cumbric
place-name Ochilvie.
The Syntax of Pronouns
Pronouns precede the noun if no other word intervenes, and if they are
accompanied by an adjective or article. A pronoun must agree with the noun
for which it stands in both gender and number, thus in Welsh, "Ef dyn cryf"
(He [is] a strong man) and, "Hi y fenyw" (She [is] a strong female). Modern
Welsh employs verbal auxiliaries such as, "Y mae ef dyn yn-gryf," etc.
Cumbric follows medieval Welsh usage.

ab.. The Equative
A simple statement such as, "The apple is red" appears in Cornish, Breton,
and Medieval Welsh as follows. Breton, "Ruz eo al aval." Cornish. "Yr afal
yn rhudd." Medieval Welsh, "Yr afal yw rhudd." To make an equative statement
such as "The apple is as red as fire," Modern Welsh employs certain adverbs
and adds a suffix to the adjective; hence, "Y mae'r afal cyn goched a than,"
but the Medieval Welsh is, "Yr afal yw yn rhudded a than." Cumbric follows
Medieval Welsh usage. In order to make a simple statement such as, "The
apple is as red," Welsh employs a different adverb, "Yr afal yw can goched."
Cumbric, "Yr afal yw can rhudded."

ac.. The Comparative
A comparative statement such as, 'The apple is redder than the fire'
appears in modern Welsh as, 'Y mae'r afal yn gochad ne than.' In Medieval
Welsh the same statement would have been, 'Yr afal yw gochach na than.' The
Breton equivalent of this statement is, 'An aval eo ruzoc'h na than.' Welsh
'y mae', which means 'there is' has a strange echo in the Bretan
alternative, 'An aval emañ ruzoc'h na than'. The Cumbric for this sentence
is,'Yr afal yw ruthach na than.'

ad.. The Superlative
A superlative statement such as, 'This apple is the reddest' appears in
Modern Welsh as, 'Y mae'r afal hwn yn gochaf.' In Breton it would appear as,
'An hini aval eo ar ruzan' and in Cornish as, 'An afal-ma yu an rutha.' The
Cumbric follows Medieval Welsh usage, 'Yr afal-ma yw y ruthav.'

ae.. Adjectives of Comparison and Superlativity
Degrees of comparison and superlativity can also be expressed by
adjectives such as:
English Welsh Cornish Cumbric
more mwy moy mwi
most mwyaf moyha moav
less llai le lai
least lleiaf lyha leyav
better gwell gwell gwall
best gorau gorrow gorrow
worse gwaeth gweth gwaith
worst gwaethaf gwethav gwaithav
farther pellach pella pellach
farthest pellaf an pella pellav

af.. Declension of Adjectives
In Medieval Welsh adjectives possessing certain vowels agreed with the
noun in gender and in same cases number as well thus small was 'bychan'
after masculine singulars, bechan after feminine singulars, and bychan after
plurals. Most Welsh adjectives adopt the plural suffix -ion when they
qualify the noun. English Welsh Cumbric
two (m) dau dow
two (f) dwy dwi
crooked (sing.) cam cam
crooked (pl.) ceimion cemi
bent (sing.) crwm crom
bnt (pl.) crymion cremi

ag.. Adjectival Suffixes
Three Cumbric adjectival suffixes have survived.

a.. -ic as in Carrick and Caraverick

b.. -oc as in Cardurnock and Carrock Fell

c.. -ol as in Rossall and Preesal.
w The above three suffixes may be compared with their corresponding
English suffixes. flower blodeuyn bloddowin
flowerish blodeuig bloddowic
flowery blodeuog bloddowoc
flowering blodeuol bloddowol
flowered blodeuedig bloddoweddic
In addition the suffix -etico from Elmetico was discovered at Penmachno in
Gwynedd on the tombestone of a 6th. century Leeds man, the Cumbric
equivalent would be -eddic.

ah.. Abstract Nouns
Abstract nouns are formed by the addition of abstract suffixes. The suffix
in Levene, which is the medieval spelling of the river-name Leven that is
found in Cheshire, Lancashire, and Yorkshire, is the sole surviving Cumbric
example. The final -e in Levene corresponds to the Welsh abstract suffix -i.
Welsh words, such as llyfniad, which means smoothness and which corresponds
to the medieval Cumbric river-name Levene, is possesses two abstract
suffixes, these are -i and -ad, which together form -iad. Cornish prefers
the two abstract suffixes -y and -ans, which together as -yans correspond to
Welsh -iant. The Cumbric word barny, meaning a dispute, which has survived
in English corresponds to the Welsh word barniad, which means a judgement.
Quite clearly the abstract suffix -i on its own sufficed in medieval

ai.. Adjectival Nouns
If two nouns are joined together the first noun becomes an adjective and
the second noun undergoes soft mutation.
Penrith, "chief ford".
Sometimes nouns are abbreviated when joined together, thus the Welsh word
buwch (cow) when added to garth (fold) becomes buarth (cowfold)
Burtholm from buvwch (cow) and garth (fold) became burth thus replacing
bu(vwch-ga)rth as in the place-names Burtholm (from burth-holmr or cowfold
island or hillside) and Birdoswald (burth Oswald). Note in these two Cumbric
place-names the disappearance of A before RTH as per rule thus making burth
corresponding to Welsh buarth.

aj.. Numerals
Cumbric numerals from one to twenty have been preserved in various
versions of Shepherd's notation. These numerals were perhaps used more by
knitters. Celtic numeration was made in scores or twenties, thus sixty-four
would be three score and four rather than the Saxon sixty-four. The notation
below is Lincolnshire Shepherd's Notation. English Notation Welsh Cornish
Breton Cumbric
one yan/yin un onen unan iun (yin)
two tan dau, dwy deu, dwy daon do
three tethera tri, tair tyr tri tri
four pethera pedwar, pedeir peswar, peder pever peddor
five pimp pump pymp pemp pump (pimp)
six sethera chwech whegh c'hwec'h chwech
seven lethera saith seyth seizh saith
eight hovera wyth eth eizh with
nine covera naw naw nav now
ten dik deg dek dek dic
eleven yan-ar-dik un-ar-deg unnek unnek iun-ar-dic (yin-ar-dik)
twelve tan-ar-dik deuddeg deudhek daouzek do-ar-ddic
thirteen tethera-ar-dik tri-ar-ddeg tredhek trizek tri-ar-dic
fourteen pethera-ar-dik pedwar-ar-ddeg peswardhek pevarzek
fifteen bumpit pymtheg pymthek penzek pemthic
sixteen yan-ar-bumpit un-ar-bymtheg whetek c'hwezek iun-ar-bemthic
seventeen tan-ar-bumpit dau-ar-bymtheg seythek seitek dow-ar-bemthic
eighteen tethera-ar-bumpit deunaw etek eitek tri-ar-bemthic
nineteen pethera-ar-bumpit pedwar-ar-bymtheg nawn jek naontek
twenty figgit ugain ugans ugent ugainth

The score or unit of twenty is used in Cumbric as follows. English Welsh
Cornish Cumbric
twenty-one (one score and one) ugain-arn-un ugans-warn-onen
thirty (one score and ten) deg-ar-hugain dek-warn-ugans dec-arn
fourty (two score) deugain deugans dawgain
fifty (five score and ten) deg-ar-deugain dek-ha-deugain dec-ar-pump
sixty trigain trygans trigain
seventy (three score and ten) trigain-ar-deg trigans-ha-dek
eighty (four score) pedwar ugain peswar ugans peddwar ugain
ninety (four score and ten) pedwar ugain a deg peswar ugans ha dek
peddwar ugain a dec
hundred cant cans canth
thousand mil myl mil
million (a thousand thousand) myliwn mylvyl million
milliard (a thousand million) mylfyliwn mylvylvyl miliard
billion (a million million) myliwnfyliwn mylvylvylvyl billion

ak.. Ordinal Numbers
It will be seen that Shapherd's Notation does not consist entirely of
numerals but alsopartly of ordinals.
English Notation Welsh Cornish Cumbric
first yan cyntaf kenta centav
second tan ail yl ail
third tethera trydydd, trydedd tressa treddeth
fourth pethera pederydd, pederedd peswera peddereth
fifth pimp pumped pympes pumpedd (pimpeth)
sixth sethera chwechwed whetegvas chwechwedd
seven sethera seithfed seythves sethfedd
eighth lethera wythfed ethves oithfedd
ninth hovera nawfed nawves nofedd
tenth covera degfed degves degvedd
eleventh yan-ar-dik unfed-ar-deg unnegves unvedd-ar-dec
twelfth tan-ar-dik deudegved deudhegves dowddegveth
thirteenth tethera-ar-dik trydyd-ar-ddeg tredhegves treddedd-ar-thec
fourteenth pethera-ar-dik pedwerydd-ar-ddeg peswardhegves
fifteenth bumpit pymthegfed pymthegves pemthecveth
sixteenth yan-ar-bumpit unfed-ar-bymtheg whetegves
seventeenth tan-ar-bumpit ail-ar-bymtheg seytegves
eighteenth tethera-ar-bumpit deunawfed etegves tredeth-ar-bemthec
ninteenth pethera-ar-bumpit pedwerydd-ar-bymtheg nawnjegves
twetieth figgit ugeinfed ugansves ugainvedd(iganveth)
thirtieth - degfed-ar-hugain degveth-ar-ugans decvedd-arn-ugain


a.. Cyntaf and centavis always placed after the noun.

b.. Ail is followed by soft mutation.

c.. An ordinal before a feminine noun causes soft mutation.

d.. Adverbs of number are formed by the addition of gwaith.

e.. Twofold, threefold, etc., are formed by adding the
suffix -pleg, -plec, thus twofold in Welsh is daupleg and in Cumbric is

al.. The Syntax of the Cumbric Verb
The Cumbric verb has more in common with the Breton, Cornish, and Medieval
Welsh verb than with the modern Welsh verb, the modern speaker of which
finds the verb of the other three P-Celtic languages somewhat antiquated.
There was no fixed order in the Medieval Welsh verb nor is there any fixed
orden in the Cumbric verb, but the verb in both Medieval Welsh and Cumbric
is affected according to where it is placed in the sentence.

a.. If the subject is placed before the verb and the object after the
verb, as in a typical modern English sentence, the definite article precedes
the verb as an adverbial particle.
Medievan Welsh. "Gwraig y can y gant." Cumbric "Iun gwraic y can y
gant."(pron. Yin goorak/goorek e can e gan) English "A woman sings/is
singing the song."

b.. If the subject is not placed before the verb, and if the object is
placed before the verb, the verb adopts the adverbial particle A, which
occasions lenition.
Medieval Welsh "Y gant a-gan gwraig." Cumbric " gant a-gan iun gwraic."
i.e. "The song is sung by a woman."

c.. If the verb is placed at the beginning of the sentence it is
conjugated without the pronoun.
Medieval Welsh "Can gwraig y gant." Or "Can y gant wraig.". Cumbric "Can
gwraic y gant." Or "Can y gant wraic." It will be noted that English like
Welsh became verbose by the addition of auxillaries, for example the
Shakespearian line, "Something wicked this way comes" is in Modern English
"Something that is wicked is coming this way.".

am.. The Conjugation of the Verb in the Present and Future Tense
English Welsh Corninsh Breton Cumbric
I sing/will sing canaf y-ganaf e kanen canav
thou singest/will singest cani y-ganyth e kanez cani
he sings/willsing can y-gan e kan can
we sing/will sing canwn y-ganyn e kanomp canwn
you sing/will sing canwch y-ganough e kanoc'h canwch
they sing/will sing canant y-ganans e kananz cananth

It should be noted that the present tense also serves as the future tense,
thus " I go" and " Tomorrow I go". In addition when the verb is accompanied
by the personal pronoun the verbal particle A intervenes between the
substantive and the verb occasioning lenition. English Welsh Cornish Breton
I sing/will sing mi a gan my a-gan me a gan mi a gan
thou singest/will singest ti a gan ty a-gan te a gan ti a gan
he sings/will sing> ef a gan ef a-gan ev a gan ev a gan
we sing/will sing ni a gan ny a-gan ni a gan ni a gan
you sing/will sing chwi a gan why a-gan c'hwi a gan chwi a gan
they sing/will sing hwy a gan y a-gan int a gan hwi a gan

an.. The Past Continuous
This tense is also called the imperfect tense, and it expresses habitual
action of the past such as"I am..." and "I used to be...".
English Welsh Cornish Breton Cumbric
I used to sing canwn y-ganen e kanen canon
thou used to sing canit y-ganes e kenes canith
he used to sing canai y-gana e kane canai (pron. cana/e)
we used to sing canem y-ganen e kanemp canem
you used to sing canech y-ganeugh kanec'h canech
they used to sing canent y-ganens e kanent canenth

ao.. The Preterite Tense
This tense expresses action completed in the past in the past, in English
it is represented by the perfect or past definite, or by the past
continuous, such as "I have...". In South Wales canas exists as an
alternative to canodd. English Welsh Cornish Cumbric
I sang canais y-ganys canais (pron. canas/canes)
thou sang canaist y-gansys canaist (pron. canast/canest)
he sang canodd y-ganas canoth
we sang canasam y-gansyn canasam
you sang canasoch y-gansough canasoch
they sang canasant y-gansons canasanth

ap.. The Pluperfect Tense
This tense expresses action completed in the remote past such as, "I
had..." English Welsh Cornish Cumbric
I used to sing canaswn y-gansen canason
thou used to sing
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PostPosted: Mon May 11, 2009 5:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Stuff on Youtube


(Discussion more interesting than the video)
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PostPosted: Wed May 20, 2009 5:30 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Not sure what to make of this Dragons voice

His blog
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PostPosted: Sat May 23, 2009 11:16 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I've ordered the book, as i'm into Brythonic stuff. I'm not sure about Anthony ap Anthony o Rheged, he seems to have a big thing about copyright, but i noticed that the backing track on one of the youtube items is a favourite of mine - Busindre Reel by Jose Angel Hevia, (an Austurian) No Man's Land copyright 1998.
Wonder if he paid the royalties?
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PostPosted: Sun May 24, 2009 6:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Abieuan wrote:
I'm not sure about Anthony ap Anthony o Rheged,

He follows us and we follow him on Twitter, here is the latest link to from him.
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PostPosted: Tue May 26, 2009 4:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I have some scepticism about this group. if you remember during all the CNLA stooshie, this "Westmorland Army" popped out of nowhere. Soon there will be a political party too no doubt.
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